Video/Audio Open Access
Observations of the Sun with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) now allow for more quantitative determination of temperatures in the chromosphere. ALMA observations of Quiet Sun regions in receiver Band 3 (3 mm; 100 GHz) exhibit small-scale features that resemble a mesh-like chromospheric pattern, similar to what was earlier detected with other chromospheric diagnostics. Tracking the features in time results in lifetimes, velocities and sizes, which are analysed within the context given by co-aligned images of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Here we present a statistical analysis and compare the results with a 3D MHD simulation with Bifrost of an enhanced network which has been degraded to the ALMA spatial resolution. The match between observations and simulations suggests that the dark features are post-shock regions. The thermodynamics and kinetic properties derived from the ALMA observations will therefore enhance our understanding of the small-scale dynamics and heating of the solar chromosphere and its potential implications for other solar-like stars.