Poster Open Access
Upcoming missions, including the James Webb Space Telescope, will soon characterize the atmospheres of terrestrial-type exoplanets in habitable zones around cool K- and M-type stars by searching for atmospheric biosignatures. Recent observations suggest that the ionizing radiation and particle environment from active cool planet hosts may be detrimental to exoplanetary habitability. Since no direct information on the radiation field is available, empirical relations between signatures of stellar activity, including the sizes and magnetic fields of starspots, are often used. Here, we revisit the empirical relation between the starspot size and the effective stellar temperature and evaluate its impact on estimates of stellar flare energies, coronal mass ejections, and fluxes of the associated stellar energetic particle events.