There is a newer version of this record available.

Report Open Access

Evolution Education Questionnaire on Acceptance and Knowledge (EEQ) - Standardised and ready-to-use protocols to measure acceptance of evolution and knowledge about evolution in an international context

Beniermann, Anna; Kuschmierz, Paul; Pinxten, Rianne; Aivelo, Tuomas; Bohlin, Gustav; Brennecke, Julia Solveig; Cebesoy, Umran Betul; Cvetković, Dragana; Đorđević, Mirko; Dvořáková, Radka Marta; Futo, Momir; Geamana Nicoleta; Korfiatis, Konstantinos; Lendvai, Adam; Mogias, Athanasios; Paolucci , Silvia; Petersson, Maria; Pietrzak, Barbara; Porozovs, Juris; Realdon, Giulia; Savković, Uroš; Sofonea, Mircea; Šorgo, Andrej; Stermin, Alexandru N.; Torkar, Gregor; Uitto, Anna; Vázquez Ben, Lucía; Graf, Dittmar

The lack of standardised assessment of evolutionary knowledge and acceptance of evolution across Europe makes comparisons between studies difficult. The Evolution Education Questionnaire on Acceptance and Knowledge (EEQ) was constructed to measure attitudes and understanding across Europe and beyond. We aimed to compile a brief instrument to allow for easy application in school and university. The target group of the EEQ was freshman university students who had just finished their secondary education. However, several components of the questionnaire were developed and validated for additional target groups. Therefore, this questionnaire may, in addition, be suitable for students in secondary school, in-service teachers as well as the general public.
This method report describes the contents and application of the EEQ and provides information on survey conduction, data preparation, analyses and interpretation of results to serve as a standardised and ready-to- use protocol to measure the acceptance of and knowledge about evolution in a local, national or international context. To allow for sampling in different European countries, we present the EEQ in 23 European languages.

Files (104.6 MB)
Name Size
1. EEQ_Report.pdf
2.0 MB Download
4.2 MB Download
4.2 MB Download
4.2 MB Download
4.2 MB Download
4.2 MB Download
4.2 MB Download
4.2 MB Download
4.2 MB Download
4.2 MB Download
4.2 MB Download
4.2 MB Download
4.2 MB Download
4.2 MB Download
4.2 MB Download
4.2 MB Download
4.2 MB Download
4.2 MB Download
4.2 MB Download
4.2 MB Download
4.2 MB Download
EEQ_Swedish (no section C).pdf
4.1 MB Download
4.2 MB Download
4.2 MB Download
Solutions of KAEVO 2.0 instrument in English.pdf
4.2 MB Download
Spreadsheet for data entry Glossary.csv
7.1 kB Download
Spreadsheet for data entry.csv
2.3 MB Download
  • AERA (American Educational Research Association), American Psychological Association, National Council on Measurement in Education (2014). The standards for educational and psychological testing. American Psychological Association.

  • Anderson, D. L., Fisher, K. M., & Norman, G. J. (2002). Development and evaluation of the conceptual inventory of natural selection. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39(10), 952–978.

  • Anderson, D., Fisher, K., & Smith, M. (2010). Support for the CINS as a diagnostic conceptual inventory: Response to Nehm and Schonfeld. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47(3), 354–357.

  • Astley, J., & Francis, L. J., (2010). Promoting positive attitudes towards science and religion among sixth-form pupils: Dealing with scientism and creationism. British Journal of Religious Education, 32(3), 189–200.

  • Barnes, M. E., Dunlop, H. M., Holt, E. A., Zheng, Y., & Brownell, S. E. (2019). Different evolution acceptance instruments lead to different research findings. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 12(1), 4.

  • Beniermann, A. (2019). Evolution—von Akzeptanz und Zweifeln: Empirische Studien über Einstellungen zu Evolution und Bewusstsein [Evolution—about acceptance and doubts: Empirical studies on attitudes towards evolution and consciousness]. Springer Spektrum.

  • Bishop, B. A., & Anderson, C. W. (1990). Student conceptions of natural selection and its role in evolution. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 27(5), 415–427.

  • Catley, K. M., & Novick, L. R. (2009). Digging deep: Exploring college students' knowledge of macroevolutionary time. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46(3), 311–332.

  • European Social Survey (2014). ESS Round 7 Translation Guidelines. ESS ERIC Headquarters, Centre for Comparative Social Surveys, City University London.

  • Fiedler, D., Tröbst, S., & Harms, U. (2017). University students' Conceptual knowledge of randomness and probability in the contexts of evolution and mathematics. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 16(38), 1–16.

  • Gregory, T. R. (2009). Understanding natural selection: Essential concepts and common misconceptions. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 2(2), 156–175.

  • Ha, M., Haury, D. L. & Nehm, R. H. (2012). Feeling of certainty: Uncovering a missing link between knowledge and acceptance of evolution. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 49(1), 95–121.

  • Harkness, J. (2003). Questionnaire Translation. In J. Harkness, F. van de Vijver, & P. Mohler (Eds.), Cross-Cultural Survey Methods (pp. 35–56). Wiley.

  • Henrich, J., & McElreath, R. (2003). The evolution of cultural evolution. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 12(3), 123–135.

  • Ingram, E. L., & Nelson, C. E. (2006). Relationship between achievement and students' acceptance of evolution or creation in an upper-level evolution course. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 43(1), 7–24.

  • Johnson, R. L., & Peeples, E. E. (1987). The role of scientific understanding in college: Student acceptance of evolution. The American Biology Teacher, 49(2), 93–98.

  • Kalinowski, S. T., Leonard, M. J., & Taper, M. L. (2016). Development and validation of the conceptual assessment of natural selection (CANS). CBE—Life Sciences Education, 15(4), 1–11.

  • Kampourakis, K., & Strasser, B. J. (2015). The evolutionist, the creationist, and the 'unsure': picking-up the wrong fight? International Journal of Science Education, Part B, 5(3), 271–275.

  • Konnemann, C., Asshoff, R. & Hammann, M. (2012). Einstellungen zur Evolutionstheorie: Theoretische und messtheoretische Klärungen [Attitudes towards evolutionary theory and Evolution and clarifications regarding measurement theory]. Zeitschrift für Didaktik der Naturwissenschaften, 18, 55–79.

  • Kuschmierz, P., et al. (2021). European first-year university students accept evolution but lack substantial knowledge about it: a standardized European cross-country assessment. Manuscript submitted for publication.

  • Kuschmierz, P., Beniermann, A., & Graf, D. (2020b). Development and evaluation of the knowledge about evolution 2.0 instrument (KAEVO 2.0). International Journal of Science Education, 42(15), 1–29.

  • Kuschmierz, P., Meneganzin, A., Pinxten, R., Pievani, T., Cvetković, D., Mavrikaki, E., Graf, D., & Beniermann, A. (2020a). Towards common ground in measuring acceptance of evolution and knowledge about evolution across Europe: A systematic review of the state of research. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 13(1), 1–24.

  • Lombrozo, T., Thanukos, A., & Weisberg, M. (2008). The importance of understanding the nature of science for accepting evolution. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 1(3), 290–298.

  • McCain, K., & Kampourakis, K. (2018). Which question do polls about evolution and belief really ask, and why does it matter?. Public Understanding of Science, 27(1), 2–10.

  • Mead, L. S., Kohn, C., Warwick, A., & Schwartz, K. (2019). Applying measurement standards to evolution education assessment instruments. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 12(1), 1–14.

  • Nadelson, L. S., & Southerland, S. A. (2009). Development and preliminary evaluation of the measure of understanding of macroevolution: Introducing the MUM. The Journal of Experimental Education, 78(2), 151–190.

  • Nehm, R. H., Beggrow, E. P., Opfer, J. E., & Ha, M. (2012). Reasoning about natural selection. Diagnosing contextual competency using the ACORNS instrument. The American Biology Teacher, 74(2), 92–98.

  • Nehm, R. H., & Ha, M. (2011). Item feature effects in evolution assessment. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48(3), 237–256.

  • Nehm, R. H., & Mead, L. S. (2019). Evolution assessment: Introduction to the special issue. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 12(7).

  • Nehm, R. H., & Schonfeld, I. S. (2008). Measuring knowledge of natural selection: A comparison of the CINS, an open-response instrument, and an oral interview. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 45(10), 1131–1160.

  • Novick, L. R., & Catley, K. M. (2012). Assessing students' understanding of macroevolution: Concerns regarding the validity of the MUM. International Journal of Science Education, 34(17), 2679–2703.

  • Paz-y-Miño-C, G., & Espinosa, A. (2012). Educators of Prospective Teachers Hesitate to Embrace Evolution Due to Deficient Understanding of Science/Evolution and High Religiosity. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 5(1), 139–162.

  • Perez, K. E., Hiatt, A., Davis, G. K., Trujillo, C., French, D. P., Terry, M., & Price, R. M. (2013). The EvoDevoCI: A Concept Inventory for Gauging students' understanding of evolutionary developmental biology. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 12(4), 665–675.

  • Popper, K. (1985). Evolutionary Epistemology. In G. Tarozzi & A. Merwe (Eds.), A New International Book Series on The Fundamental Theories of Physics: Their Clarification, Development and Application: Vol. 10. Open Questions in Quantum Physics: Invited Papers on the Foundations of Microphysics (pp. 395–413). Springer.

  • Price, R. M., Andrews, T. C., McElhinny, T. L., Mead, L. S., Abraham, J. K., Thanukos, A., & Perez, K. E. (2014). The genetic drift inventory:. A tool for measuring what advanced undergraduates have mastered about genetic drift. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 13(1), 65–75.

  • Rughiniş, C. (2011). A lucky answer to a fair question: Conceptual, methodological, and moral implications of including items on human evolution in scientific literacy surveys. Science Communication, 33(4), 501–532.

  • Rutledge, M.L., & Warden, M.A. (1999). The development and validation of the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution instrument. School Science and Mathematics, 99(1), 13–18.

  • Smith, M. U. & Siegel, H. (2016). On the relationship between belief and acceptance of evolution as goals of evolution education. Science & Education, 25(5–6), 473–496.

  • Smith, M. U., Snyder, S. W., & Devereaux, R. S. (2016). The GAENE—Generalized Acceptance of EvolutioN Evaluation: Development of a new measure of evolution acceptance. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 53(9), 1289–1315.

  • Stanovich, K. E. (1989). Implicit philosophies of mind: The dualism scale and its relation to religiosity and belief in extrasensory perception. The Journal of Psychology, 123(1), 5–23.

  • Taber, K. S., Billingsley, B., Riga, F., & Newdick, H. (2011). Secondary students' responses to perceptions of the relationship between science and religion: Stances identified from an interview study. Science Education, 95(6), 1000–1025.

  • Voland, E. (2010). Die Evolution der Religiosität. Hat Gott Naturgeschichte? [The evolution of religiousness. Is there a natural history of God?] Biologie in unserer Zeit, 40(1), 29–35.

  • Wagler, A., & Wagler, R. (2013). Addressing the lack of measurement in-variance for the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution. International Journal of Science Education, 35(13), 2278–2298.

  • Wuketits, F. M. (1990). Evolutionary epistemology and its implications for humankind. SUNY series in philosophy and biology. State University of New York.

All versions This version
Views 1,3821,118
Downloads 1,7491,383
Data volume 4.9 GB4.2 GB
Unique views 1,192992
Unique downloads 1,028865


Cite as