Journal article Open Access

COVID-19 PANDEMIC: A REVIEW OF RENAL MANIFESTATION AND COMPLICATION

Dr. Roy Arslan Ahmed, Dr. Ambar Shamrez, Dr. Aurang Zaib Bhutta

The pandemic of the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), the causative agent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a public health emergency of the international concern. The majority of the population is exhibiting signs and symptoms similar to the flu and common cold. Despite that, alveolar damage result in progressive lung failure has also been reported. Although COVID-19 has been reported principally to affect the respiratory system, other system’s involvement has also been reported. Renal involvement has also been underlined in the literature. Renal involvement in SARS-COV-2 usually corresponds to three situations: (a) renal manifestation of acute kidney injury, (b) renal manifestation of chronic kidney injury, (c) renal manifestation in patients with a kidney transplant, and the patients on dialysis. The actual disease pathogenesis is unknown; however, direct viral injury, inflammation due to markers, activation of the complement system, and coagulation cascades might be the cause. Patients with renal involvement usually experience a wide range of signs and symptoms such as oliguria, anuria, proteinuria, hematuria, lower abdominal and back pain, or elevation in creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. The pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 has become a unique challenge for the nephrologist. Various renal manifestations have been observed and reported in many cases, and even renal features may precede the classical respiratory signs and symptoms. In this review, we have summarized the information from published literature including, case reports and open-source data sets, to describe the spectrum of renal manifestation and complication observed in COVID-19 cases

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