Dataset Open Access

Input dataset for gap filling and land-cover mapping using eumap Library - 2000 to 2020

Leandro Parente; Tomislav Hengl; Josip Krizan; Martin Landa; Lukas Brodsky; Martijn Witjes

Benchmark dataset containing slope, elevation, Landsat temporal composites and night light raster layers, and the training samples (LUCAS and CORINE samples compilation) to map the land-cover in different areas of the European Union-EU.

The slope and elevation refers to Digital Terrain Model for Continental Europe, and the night light images are from VNP46A1 product (VIIRS/NPP Daily Gridded Day Night Band 500m). The temporal composites were based on GLAD Landsat ARD, considering the 4 seasons and 3 percentiles per season (25, 50 and 75), for 6 spectral (blue, green, red, NIR, SWIR1, SWIR2) and 1 thermal band, resulting at end in 88 Landsat composites per year. The images for each season were selected using the same calendar dates for all period:

  • Winter: December 2 of previous year until March 20 of current year
  • Spring: March 21 until June 24 of current year
  • Summer: June 25 until September 12 of current year
  • Fall: September 13 until December 1 of current year

The temporal composites were generated to Sentinel-2 L2A for 2018, 2019 and 2020, using the same approach (4 seasons x 3 percentiles x 6 spectral bands).

The benchmark areas were selected according to the EU tiling system, which consists of 7,042 regular tiles with 30 x 30 km. The dataset uses the ETRS89-extended / LAEA Europe as spatial reference system (EPSG:3035), and all the raster layers have 1,000 x 1,000 pixels and 30m of spatial resolution.

For all the EU the training samples will have 32 land-cover classes, varying according to the benchmark area:

  • 111: Urban fabric
  • 122: Road and rail networks and associated land
  • 123: Port areas
  • 124: Airports
  • 131: Mineral extraction sites
  • 132: Dump sites
  • 133: Construction sites
  • 141: Green urban areas
  • 211: Non-irrigated arable land
  • 212: Permanently irrigated arable land
  • 213: Rice fields
  • 221: Vineyards
  • 222: Fruit trees and berry plantations
  • 223: Olive groves
  • 231: Pastures
  • 311: Broad-leaved forest
  • 312: Coniferous forest
  • 321: Natural grasslands
  • 322: Moors and heathland
  • 323: Sclerophyllous vegetation
  • 324: Transitional woodland-shrub
  • 331: Beaches, dunes, sands
  • 332: Bare rocks
  • 333: Sparsely vegetated areas
  • 334: Burnt areas
  • 335: Glaciers and perpetual snow
  • 411: Inland wetlands
  • 421: Maritime wetlands
  • 511: Water courses
  • 512: Water bodies
  • 521: Coastal lagoons
  • 522: Estuaries
  • 523: Sea and ocean

The gap filling validation data was generated by creating a mask of all nodata pixels (gaps) for each temporal composite, and then transposing that mask. All valid pixels covered by the transposed nodata mask are considered validation pixels. This method was chosen to retain the diversity of spatiotemporal nodata patterns that occur in the data. Each gap filling validation file contains 3 directory:

  • raw: original temporal composite
  • validation: transposed data
  • filled_tmwm8: the best gap filling method that was tested

See the eumap library for more information about the gapfiling approach and land-cover mapping using this dataset.

This work has received funding from the European Union's the Innovation and Networks Executive Agency (INEA) under Grant Agreement Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) Telecom project 2018-EU-IA-0095 (https://ec.europa.eu/inea/en/connecting-europe-facility/cef-telecom/2018-eu-ia-0095).
Files (49.9 GB)
Name Size
10636_switzerland_landcover_samples.gpkg
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10636_switzerland_rasters.tar.gz
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1.2 GB Download
10636_switzerland_rasters_gapfilled.tar.gz
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1.2 GB Download
14576_netherlands_landcover_samples.gpkg
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14576_netherlands_rasters.tar.gz
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662.3 MB Download
14576_netherlands_rasters_gapfilled.tar.gz
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664.5 MB Download
14580_netherlands_landcover_samples.gpkg
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352.3 kB Download
14580_netherlands_rasters.tar.gz
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1.1 GB Download
14580_netherlands_rasters_gapfilled.tar.gz
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883.3 MB Download
15560_poland_landcover_samples.gpkg
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15560_poland_rasters.tar.gz
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15560_poland_rasters_gapfilled.tar.gz
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16057_ireland_landcover_samples.gpkg
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16057_ireland_rasters.tar.gz
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1.0 GB Download
16057_ireland_rasters_gapfilled.tar.gz
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886.4 MB Download
22497_sweden_landcover_samples.gpkg
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364.5 kB Download
22497_sweden_rasters.tar.gz
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920.8 MB Download
22497_sweden_rasters_gapfilled.tar.gz
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803.3 MB Download
4582_spain_landcover_samples.gpkg
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376.8 kB Download
4582_spain_rasters.tar.gz
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1.2 GB Download
4582_spain_rasters_gapfilled.tar.gz
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934.9 MB Download
5606_greece_landcover_samples.gpkg
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311.3 kB Download
5606_greece_rasters.tar.gz
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1.4 GB Download
5606_greece_rasters_gapfilled.tar.gz
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1.0 GB Download
9326_italy_landcover_samples.gpkg
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356.4 kB Download
9326_italy_rasters.tar.gz
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1.3 GB Download
9326_italy_rasters_gapfilled.tar.gz
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921.4 MB Download
9529_croatia_landcover_samples.gpkg
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315.4 kB Download
9529_croatia_rasters.tar.gz
md5:2359eba1246dcac8723cfbe1de1a7d0f
1.1 GB Download
9529_croatia_rasters_gapfilled.tar.gz
md5:05fb23ab5923d4373791cb8fa6b5759e
841.6 MB Download
benchmark_tiles.png
md5:4950bcb3e5314c5937ceaa81817084c6
1.0 MB Download
croatia_9529_rasters_gapvalidation.tar.gz
md5:65306d9b3d1ed00eb628b31fc9f24523
2.7 GB Download
eu_tilling system_30km.gpkg
md5:db43162ffa8650380cc7e6d7d7142fd0
1.7 MB Download
greece_5606_rasters_gapvalidation.tar.gz
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3.4 GB Download
ireland_16057_rasters_gapvalidation.tar.gz
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2.7 GB Download
italy_9326_rasters_gapvalidation.tar.gz
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3.4 GB Download
netherlands_14576_rasters_gapvalidation.tar.gz
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2.2 GB Download
netherlands_14580_rasters_gapvalidation.tar.gz
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3.0 GB Download
poland_15560_rasters_gapvalidation.tar.gz
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2.8 GB Download
spain_4582_rasters_gapvalidation.tar.gz
md5:8a9d30154a75fb9fc40b57bda4dd9c48
3.4 GB Download
sweden_22497_rasters_gapvalidation.tar.gz
md5:d7a2fe4dbc06bafc4b10b83ff5c6d5db
2.4 GB Download
switzerland_10636_rasters_gapvalidation.tar.gz
md5:2c3a0a2861e6287b22db167cf521792e
3.9 GB Download
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