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An automatically generated high-resolution earthquake catalogue for the 2016-2017 Central Italy seismic sequence, including P and S phase arrival times

Michele Maddalena; Cattaneo Marco; Chiaraluce Lauro; Spallarossa Daniele; Scafidi Davide; Segou Margarita; Main Ian G

Catalog of 440,697 earthquakes of the 2016-2017 Central Italy seismic sequence semi-automatically generated by Spallarossa et al. (2020). The catalogue covers one year of aftershocks following the first mainshock of the sequence (from 08242016 to 08312017).

The catalog has been generated using the Complete Automatic Seismic Processor (CASP) procedure (Scafidi et al., 2019) to detect the events and an advanced picker engine (RSNI-Picker2; Scafidi et al., 2018; Spallarossa et al., 2014) to determine their phase arrival times. The final set of about 7 million P- and 10 million S-wave arrival times have been used to locate the events using a non-linear location algorithm (NonLinLoc; Lomax et al. 2000), with a 1D velocity model calibrated for the area (De Luca et al., 2009) and station corrections. For each event, also local magnitudes (ML) has been calculated as well as a locations quality.

Earthquake locations quality has been classified by means of the procedure proposed by Michele et al., (2019) consisting of the combination of diverse uncertainty parameters provided by the NonLinLoc location code. Locations quality is provided in terms of a unique numeric normalized value, named quality factor, varying between qf=0 (best quality location) and qf=1 (worst quality location). Then locations have been assigned to a quality class depending on the qf parameter value according to the following scheme: A-class (0 < qf ≤ 0.25), B-class (0.25 < qf ≤ 0.50), C-class (0.50 < qf ≤ 0.75), and D-class (0.75 < qf < 1.00). The earthquake locations are distributed between the quality classes as A-30.6%, B-31.4%, C-18.6%, and D-19.4% (details in Spallarossa et al., 2020).

We accompanied the catalogue with the 30 events with M>3.5 missed by our procedure (bring the total number of events to 440,727), including the first Amatrice mainshock (MW6.0; see Spallarossa et al., 2020). These 30 missing events recognisable by the ID starting with ISI), have been taken from INGV bulletin (; ISIDe Working Group., 2007), manually generated. These additional events report INGV locations and magnitude parameters while are missing related quality factors and quality class, being generated by a different procedure.

We added to the larger events, the available moment magnitudes (MW) from Time Domain Moment Tensor catalogue (; Scognamiglio et al., 2006).

The catalog is in csv format, semicolon separator, ordered by origin time and the header content is the following:

  • Id-event – ID
  • Latitude (°) expressed in decimal degrees - LAT
  • Longitude (°) expressed in decimal degrees - LON
  • Depth(km) hypocentral depth expressed in kilometres - DEP
  • Year of origin time in the format yyyy - YR
  • Month of origin time in the format mo - MON
  • Day of origin time in the format dd - DY
  • Hour of origin time in the format hh - HR
  • Minute of origin time in the format mi - MIN
  • Second of origin time in the format XX.XXX s - SEC
  • Local Magnitude - ML
  • Standard deviation of the Local Magnitude – STD
  • Moment Magnitude – Mw (from TDMT)
  • Horizontal Error (from NLL output) (km) expressed in kilometres - ERH
  • Vertical Error (from NLL output) (km) expressed in kilometres - ERZ
  • RMS (from NLL output) (s) expressed in seconds - RMS
  • Number of Phases – NPHS
  • Stations Azimuthal GAP (°) expressed in decimal degrees - GAP
  • Quality factor - Qf
  • Quality class - Qc


De Luca G., M. Cattaneo, G. Monachesi and A, Amato (2009). Seismicity in the Umbria-Marche region from the integration of national and regional seismic networks. Tectonophysics, 476(1), 219-231.  doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2008.11.032.

ISIDe Working Group. (2007). Italian Seismological Instrumental and Parametric Database (ISIDe). Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV);

Lomax, A., J. Virieux, P. Volant, and C. Berge-Thierry (2000). Probabilistic earthquake location in 3D and layered models: introduction of a Metropolis–Gibbs method and comparison with linear locations. In: Advances in seismic event location, ed. C. H. Thurber and N. Rabinowitz, 101–134. Dordrecht and Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Michele, M., Latorre, D., Emolo, A. (2019). An Empirical Formula to Classify the Quality of Earthquake Locations. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. Vol. 109, No. 6, pp. 2755–2761, December 2019, doi: 10.1785/0120190144.

Scafidi, D., Viganò A., Ferretti G., and Spallarossa D. (2018). Robust picking and accurate location with RSNI-Picker2: real-time automatic monitoring of earthquakes and non-tectonic events, Seismol. Res. Lett, Vol. 89 (4), pp. 1478-1487, doi: 10.1785/0220170206.

Scafidi D, Spallarossa D, Ferretti G, Barani S, Castello B, Margheriti L (2019). A complete automatic procedure to compile reliable seismic catalogs and travel-time and strong-motion parameters datasets. Seismol Res Lett 90(3):1308–1317.

Scognamiglio, L., Tinti, E., Quintiliani, M. (2006). Time Domain Moment Tensor [Data set]. Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV).

Spallarossa, D., G. Ferretti, D. Scafidi, C. Turino, and M. Pasta (2014). Performance of the RSNI-Picker, Seismol. Res. Lett. 85, 1243–1254.

Spallarossa D., Cattaneo M., Scafidi D., Michele M., Chiaraluce L., Segou M. and I. G. Main (2020). An automatically generated high-resolution earthquake catalogue for the 2016-2017 Central Italy seismic sequence, including P and S phase arrival times. Geophys. J. Int. doi: 10.1093/gji/ggaa604.

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