Journal article Open Access

Fast electrical modulation of strong near-field interactions between erbium emitters and graphene

Cano, Daniel; Ferrier, Alban; Soundarapandian, Karuppasamy; Reserbat-Plantey, Antoine; Scarafagio, Marion; Tallaire, Alexandre; Seyeux, Antoine; Marcus, Philippe; de Riedmatten, Hugues; Goldner, Philippe; Koppens, Frank H. L.; Tielrooij, Klaas-Jan

Combining the quantum optical properties of single-photon emitters with the strong near-field interactions available in nanophotonic and plasmonic systems is a powerful way of creating quantum manipulation and metrological functionalities. The ability to actively and dynamically modulate emitter-environment interactions is of particular interest in this regard. While thermal, mechanical and optical modulation have been demonstrated, electrical modulation has remained an outstanding challenge. Here we realize fast, all-electrical modulation of the near-field interactions between a nanolayer of erbium emitters and graphene, by in-situ tuning the Fermi energy of graphene. We demonstrate strong interactions with a  >1000-fold increased decay rate for  ~25% of the emitters, and electrically modulate these interactions with frequencies up to 300 kHz – orders of magnitude faster than the emitter’s radiative decay (~100 Hz). This constitutes an enabling platform for integrated quantum technologies, opening routes to quantum entanglement generation by collective plasmon emission or photon emission with controlled waveform.

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