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Supplementary Data to Dual clumped isotope thermometry resolves kinetic biases in carbonate formation temperatures

Bajnai, David; Guo, Weifu; Spötl, Christoph; Coplen, Tyler B.; Methner, Katharina; Löffler, Niklas; Krsnik, Emilija; Gischler, Eberhard; Hansen, Maximilian; Henkel, Daniela; Price, Gregory D.; Raddatz, Jacek; Scholz, Denis; Fiebig, Jens

In this dataset, we provide analytical and model data to Dual clumped isotope thermometry resolves kinetic biases in carbonate formation temperatures by Bajnai et al. (2020). Also deposited here is the R code that we used to calculate the equations and generate the figures in the manuscript.

Surface temperature is a fundamental parameter of Earth's climate. Its evolution through time is commonly reconstructed using the oxygen isotope and the clumped isotope compositions of carbonate archives. However, reaction kinetics involved in the precipitation of carbonates can introduce inaccuracies in the derived temperatures. Here, we show that dual clumped isotope analyses, ie simultaneous ∆47 and ∆48 measurements on the single carbonate phase, can identify the origin and quantify the extent of these kinetic biases. Our results verify theoretical predictions and evidence that the isotopic disequilibrium commonly observed in speleothems and scleractinian coral skeletons is inherited from the dissolved inorganic carbon pool of their parent solutions. Further, we show that dual clumped isotope thermometry can achieve reliable palaeotemperature reconstructions, devoid of kinetic bias. Analysis of a belemnite rostrum implies that it precipitated near isotopic equilibrium and confirms the warmer-than-present temperatures during the Early Cretaceous at southern high latitudes.
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