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Alignment and Parallelism in Indonesian Phonology

Cohn, Abigail C.; McCarthy, John J.

In this paper, we present a complete account of word stress in Indonesian and the ways in which it interacts with affixation, limitations on root structure, PrWd juncture, syllabification, and reduplication, developing and extending the ideas and empirical material in Cohn (1989).

Phenomena that had formerly been analyzed in terms of the phonology/morphology mapping, the cycle, (non-)iterative foot assignment, and morpheme-structure constraints are all subsumed under Generalized Alignment. Parallelism leads to examination of Alignment-based alternatives to the cycle, in which the influence of morphology on prosodic structure is direct.

Furthermore, several conditions are discussed where only a parallel analysis will work, because the top-down, bottom-up, or identity effects observed are simply inconsistent with a step-wise derivation.

The paper concludes with an appendix discussing other accounts of Indonesian stress, those of Cohn (1989), Halle and Idsardi (1993), Kager (1993), and Goldsmith (1992 et passim).

This paper is copyrighted, and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) - see This paper has circulated in its present form since August, 1994, when it was first made available on the Rutgers Optimality Archive (http://ruccs.rutgers.edulroa.html). Although it has been cited as appearing in Linguistic Inquiry, we ultimately decided that it would be best to withdraw it from LI. Our revisions have not kept up with the pace of new, relevant developments in Optimality Theory, and so formal publication in a journal no longer seems appropriate. On the other hand, this work arguably deserves more than perpetual samizdat' status, and so we present it here, in this less formal venue, just as it was originally circulated. Were we to undertake wholesale revision, two main areas would claim most of our attention. Correspondence Theory (McCarthy & Prince 1995, to appear) provides a general context for studying problems of reduplicant-base identity which are the focus of section 4. Research on output-output faithfulness constraints, often implemented within Correspondence Theory, considerably changes the picture of the "cyclic" effects that are studied in section 3. For discussion of output-output faithfulness and similar approaches, see among others Archangeli (1996), Benua (1995, 1997), Buckley (to appear), Burzio (1994a, b, 1996, 1997), Bybee (1985), Crosswhite (1996), Ito, Kitagawa, & Mester (1996), Kager (to appear), Kenstowicz (1996), Kiparsky (1997), Kraska-Szlenk (1995), McCarthy (1996, to appear), Orgun (1994, 1996), Pater (1995), and Peperkamp (1997). See additional references, pp. 125. This work developed out of Cohn (1989, 1993) and an initial OT analysis presented by McCarthy in a colloquium at UC Santa Cruz, December II, 1992. This article (under the title "Foot alignment and apparent cyclicity in Indonesian") was announced in the bibliography to McCarthy and Prince 1993a, and a first draft came into being shortly thereafter, but received only limited circulation. We are indebted to Lisa Selkirk and Alan Prince for comments on this work as it developed and to Junko ItO, Armin Mester, and the other participants in Linguistics 730 (Fall, 1993) for discussion of the material in ยง2. We are also very grateful to Wilson Manik and Maria Manik for sharing their knowledge of Indonesian with us. We would like to add thanks to Niken Adisasmito-Smith for her assistance in formatting as well as the many scholars who have provided us with comments since this paper was first circulated, including Jay Keyser and an anonymous Linguistic Inquiry reviewer.
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