Conference paper Open Access
Previous studies regarding static energy meter errors under non-sinusoidal load conditions have shown that these meters can produce erroneous readings. This paper describes an investigation done using loads consisting of a commercial lighting dimmer in combination with either a resistive heater or an array of various energy-saving lamps. Dimmer impedance and phase firing angle were gradually adjusted to change load conditions. Several meters showed dramatic variations in metering error under different load conditions. In the most extreme case, metering errors ranged from five times the energy consumed by the load to registering almost no energy. Though perhaps not typically found in households, the load combinations used in this study were able to highlight sensitivities of different static energy meters to changes in load conditions.
Sensitivity of static energy meter reading errors to changes in non-sinusoidal load conditions - merged.pdf