Book Open Access
Gozhenko, AI; Zukow, W; Polovynko, IS; Zajats, LM; Yanchij, RI; Portnichenko, VI; Popovych, IL
BOHOMOLETS’ INSTITUTE OF PHYSIOLOGY, KYїV, UKRAINE
UKRAINIAN SR INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE FOR TRANSPORT, ODESA, UKRAINE
NATIONAL MEDICAL UNIVERSITY, IVANO-FRANKIVS’K, UKRAINE
NICOLAUS COPERNICUS UNIVERSITY, TORUN, POLAND
RADOM UNIVERSITY IN RADOM, POLAND
Anatoliy I. Gozhenko
Ilona S. Polovynko
Lyubomyr M. Zajats
Roman I. Yanchij
Volodymyr I. Portnichenko
Igor L. Popovych
INDIVIDUAL IMMUNE RESPONSES TO CHRONIC STRESS AND THEIR NEURO-ENDOCRINE ACCOMPANIMENT
BOHOMOLETS’ INSTITUTE OF PHYSIOLOGY, KYїV, UKRAINE
UKRAINIAN SR INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE FOR TRANSPORT, ODESA, UKRAINE
NATIONAL MEDICAL UNIVERSITY, IVANO-FRANKIVS’K, UKRAINE
NICOLAUS COPERNICUS UNIVERSITY, TORUN, POLAND
RADOM UNIVERSITY IN RADOM, POLAND
ANATOLIY I. GOZHENKO
ILONA S. POLOVYNKO
LYUBOMYR M. ZAJATS
ROMAN I. YANCHIJ
VOLODYMYR I. PORTNICHENKO
IGOR L. POPOVYCH
INDIVIDUAL IMMUNE RESPONSES TO CHRONIC STRESS AND THEIR NEURO-ENDOCRINE ACCOMPANIMENT
Gozhenko AI, Zukow W, Polovynko IS, Zajats LM, Yanchij RI, Portnichenko VI, Popovych IL. Individual Immune Responses to Chronic Stress and their Neuro-Endocrine Accompaniment. RSW. UMK. Radom. Torun. 2019. 200 p. ISBN 9780359955435 DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3470144
Olena A. Gozhenko, MD, PhD, SD, Prof, Ukrainian Scientific Reseach Institute of Medicine for Transport, Odesa, Ukraine
Arsen A. Hudyma, MD, PhD, SD, Prof, Horbachevs’kyi National Medical University, Ternopil’, Ukraine
The monograph is recommended for publication by the Academic Council of Bohomolets’ Institute of Physiology (protocol N 8 dated 25.06.2019).
The monograph presents the literature data and the results of its own study of interindividual differences in the immune responses of rats of both sexes to chronic restraint stress and their neuro-endocrine accompaniment. The neuroendocrine-immune interrelations and sexual dimorphism are analyzed in detail.
For physiologists, endocrinologists, immunologists.
Key words: Immune Responses; Chronic Stress; Neuro-Endocrine Accompaniment.
This work was funded by the State Budget Program "Support for the Development of Priority Areas of Scientific Research" (Code: 6541230).
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200 p. Number of characters: 328 000 (with abstracts). Number of images: 72 x 1000 characters (lump sum) = 72 000 characters.
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©Gozhenko AI, 2019
©Zukow W, 2019
©Polovynko IS, 2019
©Zajats LM, 2019
©Yanchij RI, 2019
©Portnichenko VI, 2019
©Popovych IL, 2019
©Bohomolets’ Institute of Physiology, Kyїv, 2019
©Ukrainian SR Institute of Medicine for Transport, Odesa, 2019
©National Medical University, Ivano-Frankivs’k, 2019
©Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, 2019
©Radom Uniwersity, Radom, 2019
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 5
STRESS AND IMMUNITY (review of literature) ................................................................ 7
MATERIAL AND METHODS OF THE STUDY .............................................................. 25
VARIANTS OF IMMUNE RESPONSES ON CHRONIC STRESS AND THEIR NEURO-ENDOCRINE ACCOMPANIMENT IN MALES ............................................................... 27
3.1. Factor analysis of parameters of the neuro-endocrine-immune complex ...................... 27
3.2. Characteristics of neuro-endocrine manifestations of stress .......................................... 32
3.3. Characteristics of immune manifestations of stress ....................................................... 42
3.4. Variants of post-stress condition of immunity (according to cluster analysis) .............. 36
3.5. Features of neuroendocrine regulation in animals of different immune clusters (according to discriminant analysis) …………………………………………………………..………. 60
3.6. Relationships between neuro-endocrine and immune parameters (according to canonical correlation analysis ............................................................................................................... 67
VARIANTS OF IMMUNE RESPONSES ON CHRONIC STRESS AND THEIR NEURO-ENDOCRINAL COMPANY IN FEMALES ………………………………………..……. 91
4.1. Factor analysis of parameters of the neuro-endocrine-immune complex ...................... 91
4.2. Characteristics of neuro-endocrine manifestations of stress .......................................... 97
4.3. Characteristics of immune manifestations of stress ..................................................... 100
4.4. Variants of post-stress condition of immunity (according to cluster analysis) ............ 109
4.5. Features of neuroendocrine regulation in animals of different immune clusters (according to discriminant analysis) ..................................................................................................... 125
4.6. Relationships between neuro-endocrine and immune parameters (according to canonical correlation analysis ………………………………………………………………...…….. 131
SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF PARAMETERS OF THE NEURO-ENDOCRINE-IMMUNE COMPLEX ......................................................................................................................... 153
5.1. Sexual dimorphism of the neuroendocrine-immune complex of intact rats ................ 153
5.2. Sexual differences of the neuroendocrine-immune complex in normal and after chronic stress .................................................................................................................................... 156
CONCLUSION …………………………………………………………………….…….. 167
REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………… 169
Stress is known to suppress immune function and increase susceptibility to infections and cancer. Paradoxically, stress is also known to exacerbate asthma, and allergic, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, although such diseases should be ameliorated by immunosuppression. Moreover, the short-term fight-or-flight stress response is one of nature's fundamental defense mechanisms that enables the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems to promote survival, and it is unlikely that this response would suppress immune function at a time when it is most required for survival (e.g. in response to wounding and infection by a predator or aggressor). These observations suggest that stress may suppress immune function under some conditions while enhancing it under others. Dhabhar FS et coworkers [2009; 2018] propose that it is important to study and, if possible, to clinically harness the immunoenhancing effects of the acute stress response, that evolution has finely sculpted as a survival mechanism, just as authors study its maladaptive ramifications (chronic stress) that evolution has yet to resolve. In view of the ubiquitous nature of stress and its significant effects on immunoprotection as well as immunopathology, it is important to further elucidate the mechanisms mediating stress-immune interactions and to meaningfully translate findings from bench to bedside.
It is important to note that significant individual differences in stress perception, processing, and coping have been observed [Dhabhar FS, McEwen BS, 2007; Gunnar M, Quevedo K, 2007]. Individual differences become particularly relevant while studying human subjects because stress perception, processing, and coping mechanisms can have significant effects on the kinetics and peak levels of circulating stress hormones and on the duration for which these hormone levels are elevated. Animal studies showing significant strain differences in stress reactivity and peak hormone levels [Dhabhar FS, McEwen BS, Spencer RL, 1993], adaptation to stress [Dhabhar FS, McEwen BS, Spencer RL, 1997], and in distribution and activation of adrenal steroid receptors and corticosteroid-binding globulin levels [Dhabhar FS, Miller AH, McEwen BS, 1995], suggest that genetic as well as environmental factors play a role in establishing individual differences [Gomez-Serrano M, Tonelli L, Listwak S, 2001].
Inspired by the ideas of Dhabhar FS laboratory, in 2012, we conducted an experimental study in rats to identify the diversity of immune responses to chronic stress and to compare changes in immunity parameters with changes in neuro-endocrine parameters. In our studies, the traditional “Big Three” was supplemented with sympathetic and vagal tone, androgenic, mineralocorticoid, parathyroid and calcitonin activities, as well as sexual dimorphism of the neuroendocrine-immune complex in intact and stressed animals was analyzed.
Key words: Chronic stress, Autonomic nervous system, Stressory hormones, Immune cell distribution, Immune function, Interindividual differences, Sexual dimorphism, Neuroendocrine-Imune relationships.
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