Conference paper Open Access
Geertsma, Cdr (E) dr. ir.; Krijgsman, ir. M
The Netherlands Ministry of Defence have declared the ambition to reduce its fossil fuel dependency by at least 20% in 2030 and by at least 70% in 2050. For the Royal Netherlands Navy (RNLN), these targets seem more stringent than the initial strategy on greenhouse gas reduction for ships agreed by IMO, which aims for 50% reduction in total annual global shipping emission by 2050. The RNLN is currently investigating the replacement of a series of support vessels, 5 ships between 1000 and 2000 tons that perform hydrographic, submarine exercise support, civil support and seamanship training operations. These vessels perform support operations, are not volume critical in their design and have a limited mission duration of 2 to 3 weeks, and thus seem good candidates for alternative fuels and alternative power systems, such as fuel cells and batteries, that have emissions with a minimum impact on the environment.
This study presents a novel approach to compare various alternative energy carrier and power system options with the Ships Power and Energy Concept (SPEC) exploration tool. We first introduce the baseline vessel and introduce the various fuels and technologies considered. We consider marine diesel oil as a baseline and alternative energy carriers hydrogen, methanol or ammonia and batteries. We review the fuels, their current and future availability and their impact on the environment. Moreover, we review the power system technologies, considering diesel generators running on marine diesel oil, methanol, ammonia or dimethyl ether, fuel cells running on hydrogen or methanol and batteries as the only power supply, recharged when ashore. Furthermore, we review power system designs with the combinations of fuel and power supply identified above and will consider: the mass and volume of the power system configurations and energy storage, fuel or batteries; the estimated capital and operational expenditure; technology readiness level; logistic availability of the fuel; and the estimated yearly CO2 emissions. Electrical propulsion with electrical power supply from internal combustion engines running on methanol appears a mature and cost-effective candidate to achieve the reduction target of 70% reduction in CO2 emission and its related dependancy on fossil fuels, with a 10% increase in capital cost and double fuel cost.
Ammar, N. R., 2019. An environmental and economic analysis of methanol fuel for a cellular container ship. In: Transportation research part D. Vol. 69. pp. 66–76.
Andersson, K., Salazar, C. M., October 2015. Methanol as a marine fuel report. Tech. rep., Methanol Institute.
Defensie, 2018. Defensienota 2018: Investeren in onze mensen, slagkracht en zichtbaarheid. Tech. rep., Netherlands Ministry of Defence.
Deniz, C., Zincir, B., 2016. Envionmental and economic assesment of alternative marine fuels. In: Journal of Cleaner production. Vol. 113. pp. 438–449.
European Union, 2018. Directive (eu) 2018/2001 of the european parliament and of the council on the pro,motion of the use of energy from renewable sources. In: Official Journal of teh EUropean Union. Vol. L328. pp. 82–209.
Evrin, R. A., Dincer, I., 2019. Thermodynamic analysis and assessment of an integrated hydrogen fuel cell system for ships. In: International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. Vol. 44. pp. 6919–6928.
Geertsma, R. D., Negenborn, R. R., Visser, K., Hopman, J. J., 2017a. Design and control of hybrid power and propulsion systems for smart ships: a review of developments. In: Applied Energy. Vol. 194. pp. 30–54.
Geertsma, R. D., Negenborn, R. R., Visser, K., Hopman, J. J., 2017b. Pitch control for ships with mechanical and hybrid propulsion: Modelling, validation and performance quantification. In: Applied Energy. Vol. 206. pp. 1609–1631.
IMO MEPC 72, 2018. Initial strategy on greenhouse gas emissions reduction for ships. Tech. rep., International Maritime Organisation (IMO), April.
Kalikatzarakis, M., Geertsma, R. D., Boonen, E.-J., Visser, K., Negenborn, R. R., 2018. Ship energy management for hybrid propulsion and power supply with shore charging. In: Control Engineering Practice. Vol. 76. pp. 133–154.
Mutarraf, M. U., Terriche, Y., Niazi, K. A. K., Vasquez, J. C., Guerrero, J. M., 2018. Energy storage systems for shipboard microgrids - a review. In: Energies. Vol. 11.
Netherlands Ministry of Defence, 2015. Operational energy strategy. Tech. rep., Rijksoverheid.
Psoma, A., Sattler, G., 2002. Fuel cell systems for submarines: from the first idea to serial production. In: Journal of Power Sources. Vol. 106. pp. 381–383.
Schulten, P. J. M., Bongartz, J. M. T., Posthumus, C. J. C. M., Barendregt, I. P., June 2015. Energy as a weapon, the why and how of the energy-efficient ship. In: Proceedings of the Engine As A Weapon VI Conference. Bristol, UK.
Schulten, P. J. M., Geertsma, R. D., Visser, K., 2017. Energy as a weapon, part 2. In: Proceedings of the Engine As A Weapon VII conference. Bristol, UK.
Svanberg, M., Ellis, J., Lundgren, J., Landalv, I., 2018. Renewable methanol as a fuel for the shipping industry. In: Renewable and sustainable energy reviews. Vol. 94. pp. 1217–1228.
Taljegard, M., Brynolf, S., Grahn, M., Andersson, K., Johnson, H., 2014. Cost-effective choices of marine fuels in a carbon-constrained world: results from a global energy model. In: Environmental Science and Technology. Vol. 48. pp. 12986–12993.
Tronstad, T., Astrand, H. H., Haugom, G. P., Langfeldt, L., January 2017. Study on the use of fuel cells in shipping. Tech. rep., DNV GL.
van Biert, L., Godjevac, M., Visser, K., Aravind, P. V., 2016. A review of fuel cell systems for maritime applications. In: Journal of Power Sources. Vol. 327. pp. 345–364.
van de Ketterij, R. G., 2018. Emissions reduction at the netherlands ministry of defence: Potential, possibilities and impact. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Naval Engineering Conference. Glasgow, UK.