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Système de production durable : caractéristiques des animaux et des produits du Porc Noir de Majorque

TIBAU, Joan; GONZALEZ, Joel; QUINTANILLA, Raquel; OLIVER, Angels; TORRENTÓ, Neus; GIL, Marta; COMPANY, Antoni; JAUME, Jaume

Sustainable production system: characteristics of animals and products of the Porc Negre Mallorquí
The Porc Negre Mallorquí (PNM), recognized as an endangered breed, is the only pig breed native in the Balearic Islands. The formation of this population derives from adaptation process since the arrival of the first inhabitants. Medium size, black hair, drooping ears and “tassels” under the neck, characterize this breed. The current 2018 census identifies 61 farms with 1523 breeding and 3497 fattening pigs. This breed has adapted to Mediterranean agro-climatic conditions, with a diet based on pastures, cereals, legumes, figs, almonds, acorns and Mediterranean bushes, with barley supplements and green peas. Performance depends on available resources, with an average productivity of 14 piglets/sow/year and post-weaning growth of about 400-500 g/day until slaughter (140-160 kg live weight). In the European Union TREASURE project, a lower slaughter yield (~75.1%) and an exceptionally higher fat content (thickness of back fat ~5.5 cm) than those of conventional breeds were confirmed. Significant differences also exist in the quality of the meat, with higher content of fat (~6-8%) and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (~50%) in the loin, a darker colour, and a weaker shearing force. This black pig breed has been consolidated due to the development of the Protected Geographical Indication quality brand for "Sobrassada de Mallorca de Porc Negre" as a main traditional product and local sales of the PNM piglet ("Porcella"), within a sustainable production system.

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