Journal article Open Access
Laser-induced fluorescence of a fuel tracer is a very sensitive technique to image in-cylinder liquid fuel films, but quantification of the measured film thickness has proven difficult so far. This article describes improvements in the quantification procedure and presents an example application in a motored, optically accessible spark-ignition engine with direct injection. We designed a calibration tool that could be pressurized and heated, allowing investigation of the laser-induced fluorescence intensities at temperatures exceeding the liquid’s standard-pressure boiling point. The fluorescence intensity of liquid toluene and 3-Pentanone dissolved in isooctane upon excitation with a pulsed laser at 266nm was investigated as a function of temperature and pressure. Consistent with the literature results on gas-phase laser-induced
fluorescence, the signal from toluene was much stronger than from 3-Pentanone, about two orders of magnitude for
films thinner than 50mm. Laser-induced fluorescence from both tracers decreased with increasing temperature but that
of toluene significantly more. The response to pressure was less pronounced. For imaging across a large field of view,
the spatial non-uniformity of laser excitation and detection efficiency was taken into account using a solid fluorescing
substrate, an inexpensive Schott-glass WG280 filter. Isooctane with 0.5 vol.% toluene was used for application in the
motored engine, imaging the liquid film on the piston-top window after direct injection from a central multi-hole injector.
Air as a bulk gas was found to be advantageous over nitrogen in that gas-phase fluorescence was quenched by oxygen.
The imaged film distributions and thicknesses and the derived total fuel film mass were physically plausible. Consistent
with the recent literature results from a constant pressure vessel, increasing injection pressure from 50 to 100 bar did
not decrease wall wetting but further increase to 200 bar did.
Development of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) to quantify in-cylinder fuel wall-films.pdf