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Open Science requires a new systemic approach, particularly in terms of national and international strategies and policies. Open Science policies need to be promoted and implemented in the Republic of Moldova. The current study makes an overview of the "Open Science" concept, as well as international experiences, necessary to better understand the situation in the country. The fundamentals of Open Science are analyzed, including: Open Access, Open Research Data, Open Educational Resources, Open Infrastructures, Open Research Culture etc. The study presents the main features of Open Science at the national level and offers a set of useful recommendations for developing policy documents and promoting activities that enable the development of Open Science in the Republic of Moldova.