Journal article Open Access
Stavis, Samuel M.; Strychalski, Elizabeth A.; Gaitan, Michael
Nanofluidic devices have typically explored a design space of patterns limited by a single nanoscale structure depth. A method is presented here for fabricating nanofluidic structures with complex three-dimensional (3D) surfaces, utilizing a single layer of grayscale photolithography and standard integrated circuit manufacturing tools. This method is applied to construct nanofluidic devices with numerous (30) structure depths controlled from approximately 10 to approximately 620 nm with an average standard deviation of <10 nm over distances of >1 cm. A prototype 3D nanofluidic device is demonstrated that implements size exclusion of rigid nanoparticles and variable nanoscale confinement and deformation of biomolecules.