Journal article Open Access


Aminkov, Bogdan; Nanev, Petar; Aminkov, Konstantin

Radiographic examinations were performed on the hip, knee and elbow joints of three brown bears.The study was conducted in the Dancing Bear Park, in the town of Belitsa, Bulgaria. All tested bears were limping and had abnormal gait. All X-rays indicated osteoarthritis and degenerative changes. A correlation between the X-ray findings and the level of lameness was established.

Files (98.1 kB)
Name Size
98.1 kB Download
  • Aminkov B., Mehandzhiyski N., Zlateva-Panayotova N., Aminkov K., Marinov G. (2017). Physiological effects of balanced anesthesia during dental procedures in brown bears (ursus arctos) Acta Veterinaria-Beograd, 67 (3), 331–339
  • Canfield P. J, Spencer A. J (1993). Secondary degenerative arthropathy (osteoarthrosis) of the hip joints in aging, free-living koalas. Australian Veterinary Journal 70(10): 394–395.
  • Colman R.J, Binkley N. (2002). Skeletal aging in macaque monkeys. Interdisciplinary Top Gerontology, 31: 32–47.
  • Erwin J. M., Hof P. R., Ely J. J, Perl D. P. (2002). One gerontology: advancing understanding of aging through studies of great apes and other primates. Interdisciplinary Top Gerontologyр 31: 1–21.
  • George P. O., Rajan A, Varkey C. A, Balagopalan T. P., Rajankutty K. (1990). Osteoarthritis in an elephant (Elephas Maximus Indicus). Journal of Veterinary and AnimalSciences 21(1): 157– 159.
  • Jack S. W, Thacker H. L. (1985). Degenerative joint disease in a Nile hippopotamus. American Veterinary Medical Association. Journal 187(11): 135.
  • Jérôme Föllmi von Genf-Stadt (2005). Symptoms, radiographic examinations and pathologies: development of a scoring system to evaluate physical condition and quality of life in geriatric zoo mammals. Foellmi_ger_eng.pdf.
  • Kealy J. K, Mc Allister H. (2000). Bones and joints. In: Diagnostic radiology and ultrasonography of the dog and cat. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company: 253–338.
  • Kirberger R. M., Fourie S. L. (1998). Elbow dysplasia in the dog. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 69(2): 43–54.
  • Kitchener A. C. (2004). The problems of old bears in zoos. International Zoo News 51(5): 282– 293.
  • Nichols K. A, Zihlman A. L. (2002). Skeletal and dental evidence of aging in captive western lowland gorillas: a preliminary report. Interdisciplinary Top Gerontology; 31: 22–31.
  • Slatter D. (2003). Osteoarthritis. In: Textbook of small animal surgery. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company: 2208–2245.
  • Straw B. E, D'allaire S., Mengeling W. L. (1999). Diseases of the nervous and locomotor systems. In: Diseases of swine. 8th ed. Ames, Iowa: Iowa state university press: 861–882.
All versions This version
Views 3333
Downloads 1111
Data volume 1.1 MB1.1 MB
Unique views 3030
Unique downloads 1111


Cite as