Journal article Open Access

Shear Strength of Reinforced Web Openings in Steel Beams

K. S. Sivakumaran; Bo Chen

The floor beams of steel buildings, cold-formed steel
floor joists in particular, often require large web openings, which may
affect their shear capacities. A cost effective way to mitigate the
detrimental effects of such openings is to weld/fasten reinforcements.
A difficulty associated with an experimental investigation to establish
suitable reinforcement schemes for openings in shear zone is that
moment always coexists with the shear, and thus, it is impossible to
create pure shear state in experiments, resulting in moment
influenced results. However, Finite Element Method (FEM) based
analysis can be conveniently used to investigate the pure shear
behaviour of webs including webs with reinforced openings. This
paper presents the details associated with the finite element analysis
of thick/thin-plates (representing the web of hot-rolled steel beam,
and the web of a cold-formed steel member) having a large
reinforced opening. The study considered simply-supported
rectangular plates subjected to in-plane shear loadings until failure
(including post-buckling behaviour). The plate was modelled using
geometrically non-linear quadrilateral shell elements, and non-linear
stress-strain relationship based on experiments. Total Langrangian
with large displacement/small strain formulation was used for such
analyses. The model also considered the initial geometric
imperfections. This study considered three reinforcement schemes,
namely, flat, lip, and angle reinforcements. This paper discusses the
modelling considerations and presents the results associated with the
various reinforcement schemes under consideration.

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  • Acharya, S. R, Sivakumaran, K. S. and Young, B. (2013), "Reinforcement schemes for cold-formed steel joists with a large web opening in shear zone—An experimental investigation", Thin-Walled Structures, Volume 72, November 2013, Pages 28–36.

  • Acharya, S. R., (2009), Reinforcement Schemes for Cold-Formed Steel Joists Having Web Openings, Doctoral Dissertation, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, pp-332.

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  • AISI, (2012), Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing-Prescriptive Method for One and Two Family Dwellings, American Iron and Steel Institute, Washington DC, USA. (AISI S230-07- Original publication is in 2007 and reaffirmed in 2012).

  • Chen, B., (2009), Shear Behavior of Steel Plates with Reinforced Openings, Master Thesis, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, pp-208.

  • Pannock, R. W., (2001), Strength of Light Gauge Cold Formed Steel Joists with Web Perforation: Senior Report, University of New Brunswick, New Brunswick, Canada.

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  • Sivakumaran, K.S. and Abdel-Rahman, N., (1998), A Finite Element analysis Model for the Behavior of Cold-formed Steel Members, Thin- Walled Structures, 31(1998) 305-324.

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