Journal article Open Access
Phuong T. Dang; Hy G. Le; Giang T. Pham; Hong T. M. Vu; Kien T; Nguyen; Canh D. Dao; Giang H. Le; Hoa T. K. Tran; Quang K. Nguyen; Tuan A. Vu
Nanostructured catalysts were successfully prepared
by acidification of diatomite and regeneration of FCC spent catalysts.
The obtained samples were characterized by IR, XRD, SEM, EDX,
MAS-NMR (27Al and 29Si), NH3-TPD and tested in catalytic
pyrolysis of biomass (rice straw). The results showed that the similar
bio-oil yield of 41.4% can be obtained by pyrolysis with catalysts at
450oC as compared to that of the pyrolysis without catalyst at 550oC.
The bio-oil yield reached a maximum of 42.55% at the pyrolysis
temperature of 500oC with catalytic content of 20%. Moreover, by
catalytic pyrolysis, bio-oil quality was better as reflected in higher
ratio of H/C, lower ratio of O/C. This clearly indicated high
application potential of these new nanostructured catalysts in the
production of bio-oil with low oxygenated compounds.
A. V. Bridgenater, G. Grassi, "Biomass pyrolysis liquids upgrading and utilization", England, Elservier Applied Science, 1991.
J. M. Encina, J. F. Gonzalez, J. Gonzalez, "Fixed-bed pyrolysis of cynara cardunculus. Product and composition", Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 63, 2000, pp. 209-222.
M. N. Islam, M. R. A. Beg, "The fuel properties of pyrolysis liquid derived from urban solid wastes in Bangladesh", Bioresour. Technol., vol. 92, 2004, pp. 181-186.  G. W. Huber, J. A. Dumesic, "An overview of aqueous-phase catalytic processes for production of hydrogen and alkanes in a biorefinery", Catal. Today, vol. 111, 2006, pp. 119-132.  P. T. Williams, N. Nugranad, "Comparison of products from the pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis of rice husks", Energy, vol. 25, 2000, pp. 493-513.  E. M. Sulman, V. V. Alferov, Yu. Kosivtsov, A. I. Sidorov, O. S. Misnikov, A.E. Afanasiev, N. Kumar, D. Kubicka, J. Agullo, T. Salmi, D.Yu. Murzin, "The development of method of low-temperature peat pyrolysis on the basis of aluminosilicate catalytic system", Chem. Eng. J., vol. 134, 2007, pp. 162-167.  Y. Liu, W. Zhang, T.J. Pinnavaia, "Steam-stable aluminosilicate mesostructures assembled from zeolite type Y seeds", J. Am. Chem. Soc., 122 (2000) 8791.  Y. Liu, W Zhang, T. J. Pinnavaia, Steam-stable MSU-S aluminosilicate mesostructures assembled from zeolite ZSM-5 and zeolite Beta seeds, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., vol. 40, 2001, pp. 1255.  K. S. Triantaflyllidis, T. J. Pinnavaia, A. Iosifidis, P. J. Pomonis, "Specific surface area and I-Point evidence for microporosity in nanostructure MSU-S aluminosilicates assembled from zeolite seeds", Journal of Mater. Chem., vol. 17, 2007, pp. 3630.  Z. Jing, Hirotaka, K. Ioku, E. H. Ishida, "Hydrothermal Synthesis of Mesoporous Materials from Diatomaceous Earth", J. AIChE, vol. 53, 2007, pp. 2114.  S. W. Rutherford, J.E. Coons, "Water sorption in silicone foam containing diatomaceous", J. Colloid Interface Sci, vol. 306, 2007, pp. 228.  Min Lu, Pengmei Lv, Zhenhong Yuan, Huiwen Li, "The study of bimetallic Ni–Co/cordierite catalyst for cracking of tar from biomass pyrolysis", Renewable Energy, vol. 60, December 2013, pp. 522-528.  Shuai Leng, Xinde Wang, Xiaobo He, Lin Liu, Yue'e Liu, Xing Zhong, Guilin Zhuang, Jian-guo Wang, "NiFe/γ-Al2O3: A universal catalyst for the hydrodeoxygenation of bio-oil and its model compounds", Catalysis Communications, vol. 41, 5 November 2013, pp. 34-37.  Xun Hu, Caroline Lievens, Daniel Mourant, Yi Wang, Liping Wu, Richard Gunawan, Yao Song, Chun-Zhu Li, "Investigation of deactivation mechanisms of a solid acid catalyst during esterification of the bio-oils from mallee biomass", Applied Energy, vol. 111, November 2013, pp. 94-103.  Sikander H. Hakim, Brent H. Shanks, James A. Dumesic, "Catalytic upgrading of the light fraction of a simulated bio-oil over CeZrOx catalyst", Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol. 142–143, October– November 2013, pp. 368-376.  Sudhagar Mani, James R. Kastner, Ankita Juneja, "Catalytic decomposition of toluene using a biomass derived catalyst", Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 114, October 2013, pp. 118-125.  Ferenc Lónyi, József Valyon, Edward Someus, Jenı Hancsók, "Steam reforming of bio-oil from pyrolysis of MBM over particulate and monolith supported Ni/γ-Al2O3 catalysts", Fuel, vol. 112, October 2013, pp. 23-30.  Lei Wang, Dalin Li, Mitsuru Koike, Hideo Watanabe, Ya Xu, Yoshinao Nakagawa, Keiichi Tomishige, "Catalytic performance and characterization of Ni–Co catalysts for the steam reforming of biomass tar to synthesis gas", Fuel, vol. 112, October 2013, pp. 654-661.  Xiwei Xu, Enchen Jiang, Bosong Li, Mingfeng Wang, Gang Wang, Qian Ma, Dongdong Shi, Xinhui Guo, "Hydrogen production from wood vinegar of camellia oleifera shell by Ni/M/γ-Al2O3 catalyst", Catalysis Communications, vol. 39, 5 September 2013, pp. 106-114.  C. E. Greenhalf, D. J. Nowakowski, N. Yates, I. Shield, A. V. Bridgwater, "The influence of harvest and storage on the properties of and fast pyrolysis products from Miscanthus x giganteus", Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 56, September 2013, pp. 247-259.  K. Chaiwong, T. Kiatsiriroat, N. Vorayos, C. Thararax, "Study of bio-oil and bio-char production from algae by slow pyrolysis", Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 56, September 2013, pp. 600-606.  Osman San, Remzi Gören, Cem Özgür, "Purification of diatomite powder by acid leaching for use in fabrication of porous ceramics", Int. J. Miner. Process, vol. 93, 2009, pp. 6–10.  Chun Hui Zhou, "Clay Mineral-based Catalysts and Catalysis", Applied Clay Science, vol. 53, 2011, pp. 87–96.  C. D. Chang, C. T-W. Chu, J. N. Miale, R. F. Bridger, R. B. Calvert, "Aluminum insertion into high silica zeolite frameworks. 1. Reaction with aluminum halides", J. Am. Chem. Soc., vol. 106, 1984, pp. 8143- 8146.  G. Engelhardt and D. Michel, "High-Resolution Solid-State NMR of Silicates and Zeolites", John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 1987.  V. F. F. Barbosa, K. J. D. Machenzie and C. Thaumaturgo, "Synthesis and characterisation of materials based on inorganic polymers of alumina and silica: sodium polysialate polymers", Int. J. Inog. Mater., vol. 2, 2000, pp. 309.  K. J. D. Mackenzie, I. W. M. Brown, R. H. Meinhold, M. E. Bowden, "Outstanding Problems in the Kaolinite-Mullite Reaction Sequence Investigated by 29Si and 27Al Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: I. Metakaolinite," J. Am. Ceram. Soc., vol. 68, 1985, pp. 293-297.  P. S. Singh, Tim Bastow, Mark Trigg, "Structural studies of Geopolymers by 29Si and 27Al MAS-NMR", Journal of Materials Science, vol. 40, 2005, p. 3951.
N. W. A. Lindula, N. Mithulananthan, X. Ongsakul, C. Widjaya, R. Henson, "ASEAN towards clean and sustainable: Potentials, utilization and berries", Renewable Energy, vol. 32, 2007, pp. 1441-1454.
P. McKendry, "Energy production from biomass (part 2): Conversion technologies", Bioresour. Technol., vol. 83, 2002, pp. 47-54.
R. C. Sun, J. Tonkinson, F. C. Mao, "Physicochemical characterization of lignin from rice straw by hydrogen peroxide treatment", J. Appl. Polym. Sci., vol. 79, 2001, pp. 719-932.
R. F. Probstein, R. E. Hicks, "Synthetic fuels", McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1982.
Tran Huu Thuc, "General statistic office, Statistical yearbook of Vietnam", Statistical Publishing House, 2006.
Truong Nam Hai, "Current status of biomass utilization in Viet Nam", Biomass-Asia Workshop, 2005.