Published May 17, 2023 | Version v1
Journal article Open

Modelling yield and carbon sequestration of main tree crops in Indonesia

  • 1. World Agroforestry (ICRAF), Indonesia
  • 2. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis


This study aims to provide trade-off assessment of restoration options for agriculture areas with yield and carbon sequestration information (see complete result at The study assesses biophysical productivity of current practices and potential management practices of tree crops cultivation that can increase the benefits to farmers’ livelihood while contributing to climate change mitigation and biodiversity. We focus on oil palm and rubber as they are of high importance for Indonesia both in terms of economic contribution as well as land area. Monoculture system for both commodities are modelled to provide information on potential biophysical productivity improvement that could result from the application of good agricultural practices. As management option alternatives, we assess the options of mixed-species systems combining oil palm and rubber each with cacao as agroforestry options.


Funding acknowledgment: This work was supported by the RESTORE+ project (, which is part of the International Climate Initiative (IKI), supported by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Nuclear Safety and Consumer Protection (BMUV) based on a decision adopted by the German Bundestag.



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