Published September 22, 2022 | Version v1
Dataset Open

Data for "Harmonized gap-filled dataset from 20 urban flux tower sites" for the Urban-PLUMBER project

  • 1. UNSW Sydney
  • 2. University of Reading
  • 3. Met Office, UK
  • 4. Singapore Management University
  • 5. University of Freiburg
  • 6. Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics
  • 7. Monash University
  • 8. University of Colorado
  • 9. Arizona State University
  • 10. UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
  • 11. University of Lodz
  • 12. Wageningen University
  • 13. Korea Environment Institute
  • 14. Yonsei University
  • 15. University of Helsinki
  • 16. National Institute of Meteorological Sciences
  • 17. Institut Polytechnique de Paris
  • 18. University of Toulouse, Météo-France and CNRS
  • 19. University of California
  • 20. Albert-Ludwigs-University
  • 21. National University of Singapore
  • 22. National Defense Academy of Japan
  • 23. University of Innsbruck


Flux tower observations, model spin-up and site characteristics data for Urban-PLUMBER sites associated with the manuscript:

"Harmonized, gap-filled dataset from 20 urban flux tower sites"

Use of any data must give credit through citation of the above manuscript and other site sources as appropriate (see below). We recommend data users consult with site contributing authors and/or the coordination team in the project planning stage. Relevant site contacts are included in site metadata. 

Data can be downloaded from the bottom of this page. 




Observed period





Aug 2003 – Nov 2004

(Coutts et al., 2007a, b)




Feb 2004 – Jul 2004

(Coutts et al., 2007a, b)




Jan 2012 – Dec 2016

(Christen et al., 2011; Crawford and Christen, 2015)




Dec 2010 – Dec 2013

(Karsisto et al., 2016)




Dec 2010 – Dec 2013

(Järvi et al., 2018; Nordbo et al., 2013)




Feb 2004 – Mar 2005

(Masson et al., 2008; Goret et al., 2019)




Jun 2019 – Jun 2020

(Stagakis et al., 2019)




Mar 2016 – Mar 2020

(Hirano et al., 2015; Ishidoya et al., 2020)



South Korea

Jan 2017 – Apr 2019

(Jo et al., n.d.; Hong et al., 2020)



South Korea

Jun 2015 – Jul 2017

(Hong et al., 2019, 2020)


Mexico City


Jun 2011 – Sep 2012

(Velasco et al., 2011, 2014)




Jan 2019 – Oct 2020

(Steeneveld et al., 2020)




Jan 2008 – Dec 2012

(Fortuniak et al., 2013; Pawlak et al., 2011)




Jan 2008 – Dec 2012

(Fortuniak et al., 2013, 2006)




Feb 2015 – Feb 2016

(Roth et al., 2017)




Apr 2012 – Jan 2014

(Bjorkegren et al., 2015; Kotthaus and Grimmond, 2014a, b)




May 2011 – Apr 2013

(Ward et al., 2013)




Jan 2002 – Jan 2007

(Crawford et al., 2011)




Jun 2006 – May 2009

(Peters et al., 2011; Menzer and McFadden, 2017)




Dec 2011 – Jan 2013

(Chow, 2017; Chow et al., 2014)

For further site information and timeseries plots see

For processing code see


Two data archives are available on this page.

  • The full collection includes all observed, gap-filled, spin-up and site characteristic data, in both netcdf and text form.
  • The "obs_only" archive includes a duplicate of site observation timeseries (after quality control) in a single netcdf file.

Full collection

The full archive includes site folders with:

  • index.html: A summary page with site characteristics and timeseries plots.
  • SITENAME_sitedata_v1.csv: comma separated file for numerical site characteristics e.g. location, surface cover fraction etc.
  • timeseries/ (following files are available as netCDF and txt)
    • SITENAME_raw_observations_v1: site observed timeseries before project-wide quality control.
    • SITENAME_clean_observations_v1: site observed timeseries after project-wide quality control.
    • SITENAME_metforcing_v1: gap-filled and prepended (10yr spinup) site observation forcing dataset for model evaluation.
    • SITENAME_era5_corrected_v1: site ERA5 surface data (1990-2020) with bias corrections as applied in the final dataset.

"Obs Only"

This archive contains duplicate data from the full collection (observations after QC):

  • in coordinated universal time (UTC)
  • in local standard time

Site references

Bjorkegren, A. B., Grimmond, C. S. B., Kotthaus, S., and Malamud, B. D.: CO2 emission estimation in the urban environment: Measurement of the CO2 storage term, Atmospheric Environment, 122, 775–790,, 2015.

Chow, W.: Eddy covariance data measured at the CAP LTER flux tower located in the west Phoenix, AZ neighborhood of Maryvale from 2011-12-16 through 2012-12-31,, 2017.

Chow, W. T. L., Volo, T. J., Vivoni, E. R., Jenerette, G. D., and Ruddell, B. L.: Seasonal dynamics of a suburban energy balance in Phoenix, Arizona, International Journal of Climatology, 34, 3863–3880,, 2014.

Christen, A., Coops, N. C., Crawford, B. R., Kellett, R., Liss, K. N., Olchovski, I., Tooke, T. R., van der Laan, M., and Voogt, J. A.: Validation of modeled carbon-dioxide emissions from an urban neighborhood with direct eddy-covariance measurements, Atmospheric Environment, 45, 6057–6069,, 2011.

Coutts, A. M., Beringer, J., and Tapper, N. J.: Characteristics influencing the variability of urban CO2 fluxes in Melbourne, Australia, Atmospheric Environment, 41, 51–62,, 2007a.

Coutts, A. M., Beringer, J., and Tapper, N. J.: Impact of Increasing Urban Density on Local Climate: Spatial and Temporal Variations in the Surface Energy Balance in Melbourne, Australia, J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 46, 477–493,, 2007b.

Crawford, B. and Christen, A.: Spatial source attribution of measured urban eddy covariance CO2 fluxes, Theor Appl Climatol, 119, 733–755,, 2015.

Crawford, B., Grimmond, C. S. B., and Christen, A.: Five years of carbon dioxide fluxes measurements in a highly vegetated suburban area, Atmospheric Environment, 45, 896–905,, 2011.

Fortuniak, K., Kłysik, K., and Siedlecki, M.: New measurements of the energy balance components in Łódź, in: Preprints, sixth International Conference on Urban Climate: 12-16 June, 2006, Göteborg, Sweden, Sixth International Conference On Urban Climate, Göteborg, Sweden, 64–67, 2006.

Fortuniak, K., Pawlak, W., and Siedlecki, M.: Integral Turbulence Statistics Over a Central European City Centre, Boundary Layer Meteorology; Dordrecht, 146, 257–276,, 2013.

Goret, M., Masson, V., Schoetter, R., and Moine, M.-P.: Inclusion of CO2 flux modelling in an urban canopy layer model and an evaluation over an old European city centre, Atmospheric Environment: X, 3, 100042,, 2019.

Hirano, T., Sugawara, H., Murayama, S., and Kondo, H.: Diurnal Variation of CO2 Flux in an Urban Area of Tokyo, Sola, 11, 100–103,, 2015.

Hong, J., Lee, K., and Hong, J.-W.: Observational data of Ochang and Jungnang in Korea, 2020.

Hong, J.-W., Hong, J., Chun, J., Lee, Y. H., Chang, L.-S., Lee, J.-B., Yi, K., Park, Y.-S., Byun, Y.-H., and Joo, S.: Comparative assessment of net CO2 exchange across an urbanization gradient in Korea based on eddy covariance measurements, Carbon Balance and Management, 14, 13,, 2019.

Ishidoya, S., Sugawara, H., Terao, Y., Kaneyasu, N., Aoki, N., Tsuboi, K., and Kondo, H.: O2 : CO2 exchange ratio for net turbulent flux observed in an urban area of Tokyo, Japan, and its application to an evaluation of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20, 5293–5308,, 2020.

Järvi, L., Rannik, Ü., Kokkonen, T. V., Kurppa, M., Karppinen, A., Kouznetsov, R. D., Rantala, P., Vesala, T., and Wood, C. R.: Uncertainty of eddy covariance flux measurements over an urban area based on two towers, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 11, 5421–5438,, 2018.

Jo, S., Hong, J.-W., and Hong, J.: The observational flux measurement data of suburban and low-residential areas in Korea (in preparation), n.d.

Karsisto, P., Fortelius, C., Demuzere, M., Grimmond, C. S. B., W., O. K., Kouznetsov, R., Masson, V., and Järvi, L.: Seasonal surface urban energy balance and wintertime stability simulated using three land‐surface models in the high‐latitude city Helsinki, Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 142, 401–417,, 2016.

Kotthaus, S. and Grimmond, C. S. B.: Energy exchange in a dense urban environment – Part I: Temporal variability of long-term observations in central London, Urban Climate, 10, Part 2, 261–280,, 2014a.

Kotthaus, S. and Grimmond, C. S. B.: Energy exchange in a dense urban environment – Part II: Impact of spatial heterogeneity of the surface, Urban Climate, 10, Part 2, 281–307,, 2014b.

Masson, V., Gomes, L., Pigeon, G., Liousse, C., Pont, V., Lagouarde, J.-P., Voogt, J., Salmond, J., Oke, T. R., Hidalgo, J., Legain, D., Garrouste, O., Lac, C., Connan, O., Briottet, X., Lachérade, S., and Tulet, P.: The Canopy and Aerosol Particles Interactions in TOulouse Urban Layer (CAPITOUL) experiment, Meteorol Atmos Phys, 102, 135,, 2008.

Menzer, O. and McFadden, J. P.: Statistical partitioning of a three-year time series of direct urban net CO2 flux measurements into biogenic and anthropogenic components, Atmospheric Environment, 170, 319–333,, 2017.

Nordbo, A., Järvi, L., Haapanala, S., Moilanen, J., and Vesala, T.: Intra-City Variation in Urban Morphology and Turbulence Structure in Helsinki, Finland, Boundary-Layer Meteorol, 146, 469–496,, 2013.

Pawlak, W., Fortuniak, K., and Siedlecki, M.: Carbon dioxide flux in the centre of Łódź, Poland—analysis of a 2-year eddy covariance measurement data set, International Journal of Climatology, 31, 232–243,, 2011.

Peters, E. B., Hiller, R. V., and McFadden, J. P.: Seasonal contributions of vegetation types to suburban evapotranspiration, Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 116,, 2011.

Roth, M., Jansson, C., and Velasco, E.: Multi-year energy balance and carbon dioxide fluxes over a residential neighbourhood in a tropical city, Int. J. Climatol., 37, 2679–2698,, 2017.

Stagakis, S., Chrysoulakis, N., Spyridakis, N., Feigenwinter, C., and Vogt, R.: Eddy Covariance measurements and source partitioning of CO2 emissions in an urban environment: Application for Heraklion, Greece, Atmospheric Environment, 201, 278–292,, 2019.

Steeneveld, G.-J., Horst, S. van der, and Heusinkveld, B.: Observing the surface radiation and energy balance, carbon dioxide and methane fluxes over the city centre of Amsterdam, Copernicus Meetings,, 2020.

Velasco, E., Pressley, S., Grivicke, R., Allwine, E., Molina, L. T., and Lamb, B.: Energy balance in urban Mexico City: observation and parameterization during the MILAGRO/MCMA-2006 field campaign, Theor Appl Climatol, 103, 501–517,, 2011.

Velasco, E., Roth, M., Tan, S. H., Quak, M., Nabarro, S. D. A., and Norford, L.: The role of vegetation in the CO2 flux from a tropical urban neighbourhood, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13, 10185–10202,, 2013.

Velasco, E., Perrusquia, R., Jiménez, E., Hernández, F., Camacho, P., Rodríguez, S., Retama, A., and Molina, L. T.: Sources and sinks of carbon dioxide in a neighborhood of Mexico City, Atmospheric Environment, 97, 226–238,, 2014.

Ward, H. C., Evans, J. G., and Grimmond, C. S. B.: Multi-season eddy covariance observations of energy, water and carbon fluxes over a suburban area in Swindon, UK, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13, 4645–4666,, 2013.


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ARC Centres of Excellence - Grant ID: CE170100023 CE170100023
Australian Research Council