Published September 21, 2022 | Version v1
Journal article Open



The aging processes start in the third decade of life, and the intensity of their course depends on the many factors, both endogenous (genetic conditions or changes in the hormonal
economy) and exogenus factors (UV radiation, poor diet, smoking, or sleep deprivation).
The symptoms of skin aging include loss of elasticity and thickness of the skin, reduced
synthesis of building components of the dermis, a decrease in the activity of sebaceous
glands and a decrease in the amount of hyaluronic acid produced by fibroblasts, as well as
a decrease in the skin’s pH value and its level of hydration.
To reduce the disadvantageous changes, triggered by aging, it is important to both prevent and influence the visible effects of these processes through the use of appropriate care.
In addition to an appropriate lifestyle, an important aspect of the reducing aging changes is
the use of appropriate anti-aging cosmetics with a composition that ensures proper lubrication, hydration and protection of the skin.
Individual elements of anti-aging care depend on personal preferences, but one of the
most popular preparations used in the care of mature skin are anti-wrinkle creams. Contemporary cosmetology formulations are based either on raw materials of animal origin
(bee pollen, peptides obtained from milk, snail mucus containing allantoin), plant origin
(bakuchiol isolated from seed extract of P. corylifolia, spirulin obtained from algae) and
microbiological origin (yeast hydrolysates, probiotic preparations). The particular components may display anti-aging effects as a result of the operation of several mechanisms.
Ingredients with antioxidant activity, such as flavone compounds, inhibit photoaging processes and limit the course of radical processes. Protein hydrolysates of collagen or elastin
stimulate the proliferation of keratinocytes, reduce the effects of photoaging processes and
improve the structure of collagen fibrils in skin cells.
The growing awareness and requirements of consumers, a better understanding of the action of bioactive ingredients and the aging processes themselves, lead to the development of
new cosmetic formulas. Taking into account the dynamics of these changes, it is important
to know the available components, their mechanisms of action and the possibility of using
them in cosmetic formulas. The aim of the study is to present the causes of skin aging and
to review selected cosmetic ingredients and active substances derived from them.