Published September 1, 2022 | Version v1
Journal article Open

Light-regulated Gene Expression in Bacteria: Fundamentals, Advances, and Perspectives

  • 1. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • 2. University of Bayreuth

Description

Numerous photoreceptors and genetic circuits emerged over the past two decades and now enable the light-dependent, i.e. optogenetic, regulation of gene expression in bacteria. Prompted by light cues in the near-ultraviolet to near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, gene expression can be up- or downregulated stringently, reversibly, non-invasively, and with precision in space and time. Here, we survey the underlying principles, available options, and prominent examples of optogenetically regulated gene expression in bacteria. While transcription initiation and elongation remain most important for optogenetic intervention, other processes, e.g., translation and downstream events, were also rendered light-dependent. The optogenetic control of bacterial expression predominantly employs but three fundamental strategies: light-sensitive two-component systems, oligomerization reactions, and second-messenger signaling. Certain optogenetic circuits moved beyond the proof-of-principle and stood the test of practice. They enable unprecedented applications in three major areas. First, light-dependent expression underpins novel concepts and strategies for enhanced yields in microbial production processes. Second, light-responsive bacteria can be optogenetically stimulated while residing within the bodies of animals, thus prompting the secretion of compounds that grant health benefits to the animal host. Third, optogenetics allows the generation of precisely structured, novel biomaterials. These applications jointly testify to the maturity of the optogenetic approach and serve as blueprints bound to inspire and template innovative use cases of light-regulated gene expression in bacteria. Researchers pursuing these lines can choose from an ever-growing, versatile, and efficient toolkit of optogenetic circuits.

Notes

Research in the Möglich laboratory is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (grants MO2192/6-2 and MO2192/8-1) and the European Commission (FET Open NEUROPA, grant 863214).

Files

Ohlendorf_LightRegulatedExpressionProkaryotes.pdf

Files (3.5 MB)

Additional details

Funding

NEUROPA – Non-invasive dynamic neural control by laser-based technology 863214
European Commission