Published August 16, 2022 | Version 1.0.0
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Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Dataset of a Chicken Bone Imaged at 4 Different Dose Levels

  • 1. University of Helsinki



This dataset is a collection of X-ray projection images of a chicken leg bone imaged in a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanner, using four different dose levels. The dataset also includes a metadata file for each of the scans, specifying the scan geometry and other important scan parameters.



Sample Information

The sample is a chicken bone obtained from a cooked chicken. The bone was boiled to remove soft tissues, after which it was left to dry in room temperature for several months to remove extra moisture. For the scan the sample was placed directly into the rotation stage and secured with a screw.


The measurements were acquired using a cone-beam computed tomography scanner designed and constructed in-house in the Industrial Mathematics Computed Tomography Laboratory at the University of Helsinki. The scanner consists of a molybdenum target X-ray tube (Oxford Instruments XTF5011), a motorized rotation stage (Thorlabs CR1-Z7), and a 12-bit, 2240x2368 pixel, energy-integrating flat panel detector (Hamatsu Photonics C7942CA-22).

Scan Settings

The dataset consists of four different scans of the same sample. For each scan 721 X-ray projections were acquired using an angle increment of 0.5 degrees. The X-ray source was set at 40 kV with a 0.5 mm aluminum filter. For the different scans, the relative doses, tube currents, and exposure times were:

  • 100 % relative dose: tube current 1 mA, exposure time 2000 ms,
  • 50 % relative dose: tube current 1 mA, exposure time 1000 ms,
  • 25 % relative dose: tube current 0.5 mA, exposure time 1000 ms,
  • 10 % relative dose: tube current 0.2 mA, exposure time 1000 ms.

The scans were made in sequence, proceeding from the lowest dose to the highest dose.

Data Post-Processing

Before the scans, two correction images were acquired for each scan setting. A dark current image was created by averaging 100 images taken with the X-ray source off. A flat-field image was created by averaging 100 images taken with the X-ray source switched on with no sample placed in the scanner. After the scan, dark current and flat-field corrections were applied to each projection image using the Hamamatsu HiPic imaging software version 9.3.

Data Format

The X-ray projections are stored in .tif format. The metadata are contained in .txt files with formatting that is both human-readable and machine-readable.


Due to a slightly misaligned center of rotation in the scanner, the CT reconstructions can appear blurry. It was empirically observed that this problem can be compensated for quite well by shifting each projection left by 4 pixels, using circular boundary conditions, before performing any other operations on the projections. It was also observed that the scans are not entirely aligned, with a small angular discrepancy between each reconstruction.


Research Group

This dataset was produced by the Inverse Problems research group at the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of Helsinki, Finland:


Additional Links

To get started with the data, we recommend looking at the HelTomo toolbox, specifically created for working with CBCT data collected in the Industrial Mathematics Computed Tomography Laboratory, and available at


Contact Details

For more information or guidance in using these datasets, please contact alexander.meaney [at]


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