Published June 20, 2022 | Version v1
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Social partners' involvement in dual vocational education and training (VET): This project has received funding from the European Commission Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion DG. Grant number: VS/2020/0145 a comparison of Greece, Spain, Poland and Portugal


The research report presents the key findings from the INVOLVE project (VS/2020/0145). It contributes to the debates on the participation of social partners in dual VET governance under countries generally classified as state-centred, skills-formation regimes (Spain, Greece, Portugal and Poland). The research report analysed the actual role played by social partners in the dual VET systems in the selected countries at different governance levels and the extent to which trade unions and employer organisations are involved on an equal footing.  It also formulates policy recommendations supporting collective responses to dual VET systems in the selected countries. Findings are based on desk research, fieldwork consisting of semi-structured interviews and mini-case studies and national scenarios developed by INVOLVE partners, on the basis of a scenario workshop methodology


Social partners involvement in dual vocatioanl education and training (VET). A comparison of Greece, Spain, Poland and Portugal.pdf