Published September 21, 2020 | Version v1
Dataset Open

Synthetic XCO2, CO and NO2 observations for the CO2M and Sentinel-5 satellites

  • 1. Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland
  • 2. Center for Climate Systems Modelling (C2SM), ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 3. Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (MPI-BGC), Jena, Germany
  • 4. MeteoSwiss, Kloten, Switzerland
  • 5. Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environment, LSCE/IPSL, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • 6. European Space Agency (ESA), ESTEC, Noordwijk, the Netherlands


The SMARTCARB project was funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) to study the use of satellite measurements of auxiliary reactive trace gases for fossil fuel carbon dioxide emission estimation. In the project, synthetic satellite observations were generated from high-resolution CO2, CO and NO2 fields (1×1 km2 resolution) simulated with the COSMO-GHG model. The vertically integrated model fields, the synthetic satellite observations, and the code for generating additional satellite observations (Level-2 creator) were delivered to ESA as "data1 package".

This dataset is a subset of the SMARTCARB "data1 package" that includes the vertically integrated model fields and synthetic satellite observations. The satellite observations were generated for a CO2, CO and NO2 imaging satellite with 2 km x 2 km resolution and a 250-km wide swath and a CO and NO2 imaging satellite with 7 km x 7 km resolution at nadir and a 2650 km wide swath. The instrument specifications are based on the Copernicus CO2 monitoring (CO2M) mission and the Sentinel 5 instrument, respectively.

The SMARTCARB study is described in the final report of the project:

  • G. Kuhlmann, V. Clément, J. Marshall, O. Fuhrer, G. Broquet, C. Schnadt-Poberaj, A. Löscher, Y. Meijer, and D. Brunner: SMARTCARB – Use of Satellite Measurements of Auxiliary Reactive Trace Gases for Fossil Fuel CarbonDioxideEmissionEstimation,FinalreportofESAstudycontractn°4000119599/16/NL/FF/mg,, 2018.

Furthermore, the following publications have been published in peer-reviewed journals:

  • Brunner, D., Kuhlmann, G., Marshall, J., Clément, V., Fuhrer, O., Broquet, G., Löscher, A., and Meijer, Y.: Accounting for the vertical distribution of emissions in atmospheric CO2 simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4541–4559,, 2019.
  • Kuhlmann, G., Broquet, G., Marshall, J., Clément, V., Löscher, A., Meijer, Y., and Brunner, D.: Detectability of CO2 emission plumes of cities and power plants with the Copernicus Anthropogenic CO2 Monitoring (CO2M) mission, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6695–6719,, 2019.
  • Kuhlmann, G., Brunner, D., Broquet, G., and Meijer, Y.: Quantifying CO2 emissions of a city with the Copernicus Anthropogenic CO2 Monitoring satellite mission, Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,, in review, 2020.




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