Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage: An Overview With Emphasis on Capture and Storage in Deep Geological Formations
Today, 22 billion tonnes of CO2 are emitted into the atmosphere from man-made sources. Worldwide, approximately one-third of emissions are from electricity production, one-third from transportation, and the rest primarily from heating buildings and industrial processes. Oil, coal, and natural gas are the source of these emissions, and these fossil fuels provide for over 85% of the world's energy needs. Over the next hundred years, demand for energy is expected to more than double. Growth will be particularly critical in developing nations where industrialization and improved quality of life will increase demand. Representative scenarios designed to predict future emissions estimate that by 2100, annual emissions of CO2 from fossil fuels will range from 16 billion to 110 billion tonnes per year, with many scenarios indicating a doubling of CO2 emissions by 2050 .