Journal article Open Access

The Future of Video Analytics for Surveillance and Its Ethical Implications

Adams, A. A.; Ferryman, J. M.

The current state of the art and direction of research in computer vision aimed at automating the analysis of CCTV images is presented. This includes low level identification of objects within the field of view of cameras, following those objects over time and between cameras, and the interpretation of those objects' appearance and movements with respect to models of behaviour (and therefore intentions inferred). The potential ethical problems (and some potential opportunities) such developments may pose if and when deployed in the real world are presented, and suggestions made as to the necessary new regulations which will be needed if such systems are not to further enhance the power of the surveillers against the surveilled. This record was migrated from the OpenDepot repository service in June, 2017 before shutting down.

Files (295.9 kB)
Name Size
295.9 kB Download
  • Adams, A. A. 2007. Regulating CCTV. Pages 3–14 of: Ethicomp 2007: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference. Tokyo: Meiji University. Adams, A. A., Murata, K., & Orito, Y. 2010. The Development of Japanese Data Protection. Policy and Internet, 2(2), 95–126. Article 5. Adams, A. A., Murata, K., & Orito, Y. 2012. Tender Electronic Eyes: Case Studies on CCTV Deployment in Japan. In Preparation. Annesley, J., Colombo, A., Orwell, J. and Velastin, S. A. 2007. A Profile of MPEG-7 for Visual Surveillance. In Proceedings Fourth IEEE Advanced Video and Signal-Based Surveillance (AVSS), 482-487. BBC. 2003 (February). Pensioner Freed After FBI Bungle. BBC. 2006 (January). Peeping Tom CCTV Workers Jailed. BBC. 2012 (October 3). High-Def CCTV Cameras Risk Backlash, Warns UK Watchdog. Bazzani, L., Cristani, M., Perina, M. & Murino, V. 2012. Multiple-Shot Person Re-Identification by Chromatic and Epitomic Analyses. In Pattern Recognition Letters, 33(7), 898-903. Ben Shitrit, H., Berclaz, J., Fleuret, F. & Fua, P. 2011. Tracking Multiple People under Global Appearance Constraints, Computer Vision (ICCV), 2011 IEEE International Conference on, pp.137-144. Berger, A, M. 2000. Privacy Mode for Acquisition Cameras and Camcorders. U.S. Patent 6,067,399, Sony Corporation, 23 May 2000. Brin, D. 1998. The Transparent Society. Jackson, TN: Perseus. Cezar, J., Jacques, S., & Musse, S. R. 2010. Crowd Analysis Using Computer Vision Techniques. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 27(September), 66–77. Coetzer, B., Merwe, J. van der, & Josephs, B. 2011. Information Management and Video Analytics: the Future of Intelligent Video Surveillance. InTech. Coudert, F., Gemo, M., Beslay, L., & Andritsos, F. (2011). Pervasive Monitoring: Appreciating Citizen's Surveillance as Digital Evidence in Legal Proceedings. In Imaging for Crime Detection and Prevention 2011 (ICDP 2011), 4th International Conference on (pp. 1-6). Dee, H., & Hogg, D. 2004. Detecting Inexplicable Behaviour. Pages 477–486 of: Proceedings of the British Machine Vision Conference, The British Machine Vision Association. Dee, H., & Hogg, D. 2006. Navigational Strategies and Surveillance. Pages 73–81 of: Proceedings of the IEEE International Workshop on Visual Surveillance (ECCV-VS). IEEE Computer Society Press. Dee, H. M. & Velastin, S. A. 2008. How Close Are We To Solving the Problem of Automated Visual Surveillance? A Review of Real-World Surveillance, Scientific Progress and Evaluative Mechanisms. Machine Vision and Applications, 19(5-6), 329-343. Dick, A. R., & Brooks, M. J. 2003. Issues in Automated Visual Surveillance. In: Sun et al. (2003). Dollár, P., Wojek, C., Schiele, B. & Perona, P. 2012. Pedestrian Detection: An Evaluation of the State of the Art, In Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (PAMI), 34(4), 743-761. Donald, C. 2005. How Many Monitors Should a CCTV Operator View? In CCTV Image. STL Publishing, London, England, pp. 355. Dufaux, F. & Ebrahimi, T. 2008. Scrambling for Privacy Protection in Video Surveillance Systems. In IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, 18(8), 1168-1174. Evans, M., Boyle J. N. & Ferryman, J. 2012, Vehicle Classification using Evolutionary Forests. Proceedings International Conference on Pattern Recognition Applications and Methods, pp 387-393. Florence, J. 2006. Making the No Fly List Fly: A Due Process Model for Terrorist Watchlists. Yale Law Journal, 115(8), 2148–2181. Gong, S., Loy, C. C., & Xiang, T. 2011. Security and Surveillance. Springer. Goold, B. J. 2002. Privacy Rights and Public Spaces: CCTV and the Problem of the "Unobservable Observer". Criminal Justice Ethics 21(1) 21-27. Helbing, D., & Molnar, P. 1995. Social Force Model for Pedestrian Dynamics. Physical Review E, 51. Hempel, L., & Töpfer, E. 2004. CCTV in Europe (Final Report). Tech. rept. Urban Eye Project: HPSE-CT2001-00094. Hu, W., Tan, T., Wang, L., & Maybank, S. 2004. A Survey on Visual Surveillance of Object Motions and Behaviour. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 34, 334–252. Independent Police Complaints Commission (UK). 2007 (8 November). Stockwell One: Investigation into the shooting of Jean Charles de Menezes at Stockwell underground station on 22 July 2005.\_one.pdf. Introna, L. D. (2000). Workplace Surveillance, Privacy and Distributive Justice. ACM SIGCAS Computers and Society, 30(4), 33-39. Introna, L. D., & Wood, D. 2004. Picturing Algorithmic Surveillance: The Politics of Facial Recognition Systems. Surveillance and Society, 2(2/3), 177–198. Jia, K. & Gong, S. 2008. Generalized Face Super-Resolution. In IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 17(6), 873-886. Ko, T. 2011. Video Surveillance. InTech. Chap. A Survey on Behaviour Analysis in Video Surveillance Applications. Lee, S-W., Park, J., & Lee, S-W. 2006. Low Resolution Face Recognition Based on Support Vector Data Description. Pattern Recognition, 39, 1809–1812. Lewis, P. 2009. G20 protests death Ian Tomlinson death: Guardian video reveals police attack on man who died at G20 protest. The Guardian, 7th April. Liu, C., Shum, H-Y., & Freeman, W. T. 2007. Face Hallucination: Theory and Practice. International Journal of Computer Vision, 75(1), 115–134. Lyall, S. 2009. Critics Assail British Police for Harsh Tactics During the G-20 Summit Meeting. New York Times, 30th May. 2011 (January). Global Video Surveillance Market, Applications and Management Services Forecasts (2010-2015). Mehran, R., Moore, E. R., & M, Shah. 2010. A Streakline Representation of Flow in Crowded Scenes. In: European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV). Moussaid, M., Perozo, N., Garnier, S., Helbing, D., & Theraulaz, G. 2010. The Walking Behaviour of Pedestrian Social Groups and Its Impact on Crowd Dynamics. PloS ONE, 5(4). Norris, C., & Armstrong, G. 1999. The Maximum Surveillance Society: The Rise of CCTV. Oxford: Berg. Orrite, C., Martinez, F., Herrero, E., Ragheb, H. & and Velastin, S. 2008. Independent Viewpoint Silhouette-based Human Action Modelling and Recognition, Proc. 1st International Workshop on Machine Learning for Vision-based Motion Analysis in conjunction with the European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV). Park, J-S., & Lee, S-W. 2008. An Example-Based Face Hallucination Method for Single-Frame, Low-Resolution Facial Images. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 17(10), 1806–1816. Patino, L., Bremond, F., Evans, M., Shahrokni, A. & Ferryman, J. 2010. Video Activity and Reporting with Incremental Unsupervised Learning. In Proceedings Seventh IEEE Advanced Video and Signal-Based Surveillance (AVSS), 511-518. Ragheb, H., Velastin, S., Remagnino, P. & Ellis, T. 2008. ViHASi: Virtual Human Action Silhouette Data for the Evaluation of Silhouette-Based Action Recognition Methods, Proc. ACM International Workshop on Vision Networks for Behaviour Analysis in conjunction with the ACM Multimedia (MM). PETS2006. 2006. IEEE 2006 International Workshop on Performance Evaluation of Tracking and Surveillance. PETS2007. 2007. IEEE 2007 International Workshop on Performance Evaluation of Tracking and Surveillance. PETS2009. 2009 IEEE 2009 International Workshop on Performance Evaluation of Tracking and Surveillance. Pham, Q-C., Gond, L., Begard, J., Allezard, N. & Sayd, P. Real Time Posture Analysis in a Crowd using Thermal Imaging. In Proceedings Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR'07), pp 1-8. Reeves, B., & Nass, C. 2002. The Media Equation. 2nd edn. Stanford: CSLI. Rowlands, M. 2011 (21 January). Statewatch Analysis — Six Months On: An Update on the UK Coalition Government's Commitment to Civil Liberties. Senior, A., Pankanti, A., Brown, L., Ying-Li, T., Ekin, A., Connell, J., Chiao, F.-S., & Lu, M. 2005. Enabling Privacy through Computer Vision. IEEE Security and Privacy, 3, 50–57. Sochman, J. & Hogg, D. C. 2011. Who Knows Who – Inverting the Social Force Model for Finding Groups. In Proceedings IEEE International Workshop on Socially Intelligent Surveillance and Monitoring (SISM), pp 830-837. Spindler, T., Wartmann, C., Hovestadt, L., Roth, D., Van Gool, L., & Steffen, A. 2008. Privacy in Video Surveilled Spaces. Computer Security, 16(2), 199–222. Sun, C., Talbot, H., Ourselin, S., & Adriaansen, T. (eds). 2003. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Digital Image Computing: Techniques and Applications, DICTA 2003, 10-12 December 2003, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. CSIRO Publishing. The Economist. 2012 (28 April). Video Surveillance: I Spy with My Big Eye. Tickner, A.H. & Poulton, E.C. 1973. Monitoring up to 16 Synthetic Television Pictures Showing a Great Deal of Movement. Ergonomics, 16, 381-401. Tweed, D. & Ferryman, J. 2008. Enhancing Change Detection in Low-Quality Surveillance Video with Markov Random Fields", Proc. 1st ACM International Workshop on Vision Networks for Behaviour Analysis (VNBA'08) (in conjunction with the ACM Multimedia Conference). Valera, M., Velastin, S., Ellis A-L., & Ferryman, J. 2011. Communication Mechanisms and Middleware for Distributed Video Surveillance, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, 21(12), 1795-1809. Welsh, B. P. and Farrington, D. P. 2009. Public Area CCTV and Crime Prevention: An Update Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Justice Quarterly 26(4), 716-745. Yilmaz, A., Javed, O., & Shah, M. 2006. Object Tracking: A Survey. ACM Computing Surveys, 38(4), Article 13. Zaidenberg, S., Boulay, B., & Bremond, F. 2012. A Generic Framework for Video Understanding Applied to Group Behaviour Recognition, Proceedings of the IEEE Ninth International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal-Based Surveillance (AVSS 2012), 126-142. Zhan, B., Monekosso, D. N., Remagnino, P., Velastin, S. A., & Xu, L. Q. 2008. Crowd Analysis: A Survey. Mach. Vis. Appl., 19(5-6), 345–357.

All versions This version
Views 172172
Downloads 129129
Data volume 38.2 MB38.2 MB
Unique views 167167
Unique downloads 119119


Cite as