There is a newer version of this record available.

Dataset Open Access

Global Bee Interaction Data

Katja C. Seltmann

Global Bee Interaction Data


This dataset comprises all bee interactions indexed by Global Biotic Interactions (GloBI; Poelen et al. 2014). It is published quarterly by the Big Bee Project (Seltmann et al. 2021) to summarize all available knowledge about bee interactions from natural history collection, community science observations (i.e., iNaturalist), and the literature. Interactions include flower visitation, parasitic interactions (mite, viral), lecty, and many others.

Data Description

Please see the integration process page to better understand how Global Biotic Interactions combines datasets from various sources. The complete interaction dataset for all species can be accessed via

Data is filtered for unique records based on the interaction description and source citation. Archives contain full data records and unique filtered records in both csv and tsv format.

Dataset column name definitions or



total number of

bee interactions

in GloBI

Apidae Halictidae Andrenidae Colletidae Melittidae Stenotritidae
April 27, 2020 178,709 103,612 39,304 26,380 7,983 1,412 18
May 4, 2022 362,981 143,661 63,944 77,906 20,379 2,987 18

Included Resources

count source citation
20845 A. Thessen. 2014. Species associations extracted from EOL text data objects via text mining.
23 Agosti, Donat. 2020. Transcription of Linné, C. von, 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Available at: .
3 Aja Sherman, Cullen Geiselman. 2021. Bat Co-Roosting Database
135 Allen Hurlbert. 2017. Avian Diet Database.
736 Arizona State University Hasbrouck Insect Collection
3 Ballantyne, Gavin; Baldock, Katherine C. R.; Willmer, Pat G. (2015), Data from: Constructing more informative plant-pollinator networks: visitation and pollen deposition networks in a heathland plant community, Dryad, Dataset,
17 Barnes, C. et al., 2008. Predator and prey body sizes in marine food webs. Ecology, 89(3), pp.881–881. Available at: . Data provided by Carolyn Barnes. Also available at .
136 Bartomeus, Ignasi (2013): Plant-Pollinator Network Data. figshare. Dataset.
1 Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, J. Linsley Gressitt Center for Research in Entomology
83 Brose, U. (2018). GlobAL daTabasE of traits and food Web Architecture (GATEWAy) version 1.0 [Data set]. German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig.
28 Brose, U. et al., 2005. Body sizes of consumers and their resources. Ecology, 86(9), pp.2545–2545. Available at:
111 California Academy of Sciences Entomology
19627 Carril OM, Griswold T, Haefner J, Wilson JS. (2018) Wild bees of Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument: richness, abundance, and spatio-temporal beta-diversity. PeerJ 6:e5867
672 Classen, Alice; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf (2020): Plant-pollinator interactions along an elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro. PANGAEA,
270 Cohen JM, Sauer EL, Santiago O, Spencer S, Rohr JR. 2020. Divergent impacts of warming weather on wildlife disease risk across climates. Science. doi:10.1126/science.abb1702
79 Cristina Preda and Quentin Groom. 2014. Species associations manually extracted from literature.
45 David W. Thieltges, Karsten Reise, Kim N. Mouritsen, John P. McLaughlin, and Robert Poulin. 2011. Food web including metazoan parasites for a tidal basin in Germany and Denmark. Ecology 92:2005.
862 Del Risco, A.A., Montoya, Á.M., García, V. et al. Data synthesis and dynamic visualization converge into a comprehensive biotic interaction network: a case study of the urban and rural areas of Bogotá D.C.. Urban Ecosyst (2021).
3650 Eardley C, Coetzer W. 2016. Catalogue of Afrotropical Bees.
472 Ed Baker; Ian J. Kitching; George W. Beccaloni; Amoret Whitaker et al. (2016). Dataset: NHM Interactions Bank. Natural History Museum Data Portal (
5 Ferrer-Paris, José R.; Sánchez-Mercado, Ada Y.; Lozano, Cecilia; Zambrano, Liset; Soto, José; Baettig, Jessica; Leal, María (2014): A compilation of larval host-plant records for six families of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) from available electronic resources. figshare.
2 Field Museum of Natural History IPT
326 Food Webs and Species Interactions in the Biodiversity of UK and Ireland (Online). 2017. Data provided by Malcolm Storey. Also available from
207 Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2018. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication., version (10/2018).
4 Frost Entomological Museum, Pennsylvania State University
6 Gandhi, K. J. K., & Herms, D. A. (2009). North American arthropods at risk due to widespread Fraxinus mortality caused by the Alien Emerald ash borer. Biological Invasions, 12(6), 1839–1846. doi:10.1007/s10530-009-9594-1.
2 Geiselman, Cullen K. & Sarah Younger. 2020. Bat Eco-Interactions Database.
2 Geiselman, Cullen K. and Tuli I. Defex. 2015. Bat Eco-Interactions Database.
2052 Giselle Muschett & Francisco E. Fontúrbel. 2021. A comprehensive catalogue of plant – pollinator interactions for Chile
289 Global Web Database ( an online collection of food webs. Accessed via on 2017-10-12.
89 Groom, Q.J., Maarten De Groot, M. & Marčiulynienė, D. (2020) Species interation data manually extracted from literature for species .
1 Grundler MC (2020) SquamataBase: a natural history database and R package for comparative biology of snake feeding habits. Biodiversity Data Journal 8: e49943.
1 Gunther KA et al. 2014 Dietary breadth of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Ursus 25(1):60-72
54 Harvard University M, Morris P J (2021). Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University.
516 Illinois Natural History Survey Insect Collection
23 Jakovos Demetriou and Quentin Groom 2014. Species associations of Sceliphron manually extracted from literature.
2 Jorrit H. Poelen. 2017. Species interactions associated with known species interaction datasets.
2487 LaManna, JA, Burkle, LA, Belote, RT, Myers, JA. Biotic and abiotic drivers of plant–pollinator community assembly across wildfire gradients. J Ecol. 2020; 00: 1– 14. .
22 Mihara, T., Nishimura, Y., Shimizu, Y., Nishiyama, H., Yoshikawa, G., Uehara, H., Hingamp, P., Goto, S., and Ogata, H.; Linking virus genomes with host taxonomy. Viruses 8, 66 doi:10.3390/v8030066 (2016).
2 Museum for Southern Biology (MSB) Parasite Collection
115 Mycology Collections Data Portal (MyCoPortal). 2020.
3395 National Database Plant Pollinators. Center for Plant Conservation at San Diego Zoo Global. Accessed via on 2020-06-05.
30 National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution IPT RSS Feed
524 Natural History Collections managed by Arctos ( accessed via .
39 Olito, Colin; Fox, Jeremy W. (2015), Data from: Species traits and abundances predict metrics of plant–pollinator network structure, but not pairwise interactions, Dryad, Dataset,
1 Paleo Digitization Working Group. Biological associations extracted from fossil specimens.
4 Palomares, M.L.D. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2018. SeaLifeBase. World Wide Web electronic publication., version (10/2018).
9929 Pensoft Darwin Core Archives available via Integrated Publication Toolkit
2137 Pensoft Darwin Core Archives with associateTaxa columns
42 Pinnegar, J.K. (2014). DAPSTOM - An Integrated Database & Portal for Fish Stomach Records. Version 4.7. Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft, UK. February 2014, 39pp.
36 Pocock, Michael J. O.; Evans, Darren M.; Memmott, Jane (2012), Data from: The robustness and restoration of a network of ecological networks, Dryad, Dataset,
1 Portalier, Sebastien; Fussmann, Gregor; Loreau, Michel; Cherif, Mehdi (2018), Data from: The mechanics of predator-prey interactions: first principles of physics predict predator-prey size ratios, Dryad, Dataset,
4761 Purdue Entomological Research Collection
26 Quentin J. Groom. 2020. Species interactions of species on the List of invasive alien species of Union concern
5169 Redhead, J.W.; Coombes, C.F.; Dean, H.J.; Dyer, R.; Oliver, T.H.; Pocock, M.J.O.; Rorke, S.L.; Vanbergen, A.J.; Woodcock, B.A.; Pywell, R.F. (2018). Plant-pollinator interactions database for construction of potential networks. NERC Environmental Information Data Centre.
76 San Diego Natural History Museum
262 Sarah E Miller. 06/10/2015. Species associations manually extracted from Chamberlin, W. J. The Buprestidae of North America, Exclusive of Mexico, a Catalogue including Synonomy, Bibliography, Distribution, Type Locality and Hosts of Each Species,. 1926.
131 Sarah E Miller. 12/13/2016. Species associations manually extracted from Onstad, D.W. EDWIP: Ecological Database of the World's Insect Pathogens. Champaign, Illinois: Illinois Natural History Survey, [23/11/2016].
946 Sarah E Miller. 4/18/2016. Species associations from Wardeh, M. et al. Database of host-pathogen and related species interactions, and their global distribution. Sci. Data 2:150049 doi: 10.1038/sdata.2015.49 (2015)
1 Sarah E Miller. 4/20/2015. Species associations manually extracted from various papers and articles from site
4 Sarah E Miller. 5/28/2015. Arnaud, Paul Henri. A Host-parasite Catalog of North American Tachinidae (Diptera). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration, 1978.
762 Sarah E Miller. 5/30/2016. Interations from various papers.
1326 Sarah E Miller. 6/19/2015. Species associations manually extracted from datasets
517 Sarah E Miller. 6/22/2015. Species associations manually extracted from datasets
401 Sarah E Miller. 6/25/2015. Species associations manually extracted from Robertson, C. 1929. Flowers and insects: lists of visitors to four hundred and fifty-three flowers. Carlinville, IL, USA, C. Robertson.
2 Sarah E Miller. 7/6/2016. Arctos collection.
4 Sarah E Miller. 7/7/2016. Text gathered from Wirta, H.K., Vesterinen, E.J., Hambäck, P.A., Weingartner, E., Rasmussen, C., Reneerkens, J., Schmidt, N.M., Gilg, O. and Roslin, T., 2015. Exposing the structure of an Arctic food web. Ecology and evolution, 5(17), pp.3842-3856.
2 Sarah E Miller. 9/15/2016. Species associations extracted from
25 Sarah E Miller. 9/19/2016. Species associations extracted from Graystock, P., Blane, E.J., McFrederick, Q.S., Goulson, D. and Hughes, W.O., 2016. Do managed bees drive parasite spread and emergence in wild bees?. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, 5(1), pp.64-75.
1896 Sarah E. Miller. 07/06/2017. Information extracted from dataset
3 Scott L. Gardner and Gabor R. Racz (2021). University of Nebraska State Museum - Parasitology. Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology. University of Nebraska State Museum.
2867 Seltmann, K., Van Wagner, J., Behm, R., Brown, Z., Tan, E., & Liu, K. (2020). BID: A project to share biotic interaction and ecological trait data about bees (Hymenoptera: Anthophila). UC Santa Barbara: Cheadle Center for Biodiversity and Ecological Restoration. Retrieved from
16 Species Connect.
3 Species Interactions of Australia Database (SIAD): Helping us to understand species interactions in Australia and beyond. .
94524 Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network (SCAN)
596 Texas A&M University Insect Collection
23 The Albert J. Cook Arthropod Research Collection
659 The International Barcode of Life Consortium (2016). International Barcode of Life project (iBOL). Occurrence dataset
9 USGS Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON) IPT
17 Udy, Kristy; Reininghaus, Hannah; Scherber, Christoph; Tscharntke, Teja (2020), Data from: Plant-pollinator interactions along an urbanization gradient from cities and villages to farmland landscapes, Dryad, Dataset,
873 United States Geological Survey (USGS) Pollinator Library.
374 University of California Santa Barbara Invertebrate Zoology Collection
2920 University of Colorado Museum of Natural History Entomology Collection
191 University of Hawaii Insect Museum
100417 University of Kansas Natural History Museum
7494 University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Insect Division. Full Database Export 2020-11-20 provided by Erika Tucker and Barry Oconner.
1257 University of New Hampshire Collection of Insects and other Arthropods UNHC-UNHC
1258 University of New Hampshire Donald S. Chandler Entomological Collection
6 Urban M, Cuzick A, Rutherford K, Irvine A, Pedro H, Pant R, Sadanadan V, Khamari L, Billal S, Mohanty S, Hammond-Kosack KE. PHI-base: a new interface and further additions for the multi-species pathogen-host interactions database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017 Jan 4;45(D1):D604-D610. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkw1089. Epub 2016 Dec 3. PMID:27915230
1 WIRC / University of Wisconsin Madison WIS-IH / Wisconsin Insect Research Collection
7079 Web of Life. .
162 Yale University Peabody Museum Collections Data Portal
52693 is a place where you can record what you see in nature, meet other nature lovers, and learn about the natural world.
3079 - the ecological interaction database.


Poelen JH, Simons JD, Mungall CJ (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.

Seltmann KC, Allen J, Brown BV, Carper A, Engel MS, Franz N, Gilbert E, Grinter C, Gonzalez VH, Horsley P, Lee S, Maier C, Miko I, Morris P, Oboyski P, Pierce NE, Poelen J, Scott VL, Smith M, Talamas EJ, Tsutsui ND, Tucker E (2021) Announcing Big-Bee: An initiative to promote understanding of bees through image and trait digitization. Biodiversity Information Science and Standards 5: e74037.


This project is supported by the National Science Foundation. Award numbers: DBI:2102006, DBI:2101929, DBI:2101908, DBI:2101876, DBI:2101875, DBI:2101851, DBI:2101345, DBI:2101913, DBI:2101891 and DBI:2101850

Files (369.4 MB)
Name Size
201.4 MB Download
21.2 kB Download
168.0 MB Download
  • Poelen JH, Simons JD, Mungall CJ (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.

  • Seltmann KC, Allen J, Brown BV, Carper A, Engel MS, Franz N, Gilbert E, Grinter C, Gonzalez VH, Horsley P, Lee S, Maier C, Miko I, Morris P, Oboyski P, Pierce NE, Poelen J, Scott VL, Smith M, Talamas EJ, Tsutsui ND, Tucker E (2021) Announcing Big-Bee: An initiative to promote understanding of bees through image and trait digitization. Biodiversity Information Science and Standards 5: e74037.

All versions This version
Views 422205
Downloads 17738
Data volume 10.8 GB1.7 GB
Unique views 350179
Unique downloads 13433


Cite as