Journal article Open Access

HYPERBARIC OXYGEN THERAPY AMELIORATES THE SYMPTOMS OF POST-CONCUSSION SYNDROME BY INHIBITING MMP-9 ACTIVITY: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Indonesia

Maximillian Christian Oley; Mendy Hatibie Oley; Eko Prasetyo; Billy Johnson Kepel; Mochammad Hatta; Andi Asadul Islam; Mardoni Setiawan; Deanette Michelle Aling; Marcella Tirza Tulong; Muhammad Faruk

Introduction: Post-concussion syndrome is common in young adults and can greatly interfere with the quality of daily life with a wide range of symptoms that require prompt and well-targeted treatment to avoid further brain impairment. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a promising regenerative treatment option for these patients to help prevent the progression of post-concussion syndrome. This study aims to determine whether HBOT accelerates the healing process and reduces symptoms in patients with post-concussion syndrome.

Methods: 20 patients with post-concussion syndrome participated in this randomized controlled trial study. After receiving standard mild traumatic brain injury treatment in accordance with the Advanced Trauma Life Support guidelines, the patients were divided into HBOT and control groups. Matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) levels and Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) scores were used to compare the two groups (before HBOT & after 1st, 3rd, 5th week).

Results: The study sample was predominantly male (X%) with an average age of 60 years old. HBOT reduced serum MMP-9 levels by nearly 20 ng/mL (p < 0.001) compared with the control treatment. The efficacy of HBOT was also reflected in the RPQ scores, which were significantly lower in the HBOT group than the control group (before HBOT & after 1st, 3rd, 5th week) (-3.80 on RPQ-3, p = p<0.001; -16.20 on RPQ-13, p = p<0.001).
Conclusion: HBOT ameliorated the symptoms associated with post-concussion syndrome through a mechanism that involves MMP-9 activity. The accelerated recovery observed in the present study supports the use of HBOT to treat post-concussion syndrome and potentially other forms of traumatic brain injury. 
Files (350.2 kB)
Name Size
CONSORT 2010 Checklist.doc
md5:e11d340ba5c664f0d81f47854c2e3ff2
224.8 kB Download
CONSORT 2010 Flowchart.doc
md5:cbb3a8276db5e265ff9faf66d35ced94
54.8 kB Download
Maximilian Data Post-Concussion Syndrome 2.docx
md5:a0e6ff1a0fba5ccb7baa1cb202b51d90
41.0 kB Download
Maximilian Data Post-Concussion Syndrome.xlsx
md5:949fcddf4a017c4200f2553f9b6539f2
29.6 kB Download
102
28
views
downloads
All versions This version
Views 10258
Downloads 2810
Data volume 2.2 MB1.5 MB
Unique views 8250
Unique downloads 197

Share

Cite as