Journal article Open Access

Natural history of manta rays in the Bird's Head Seascape, Indonesia, with an analysis of the demography and spatial ecology of Mobula alfredi (Elasmobranchii: Mobulidae)

Setyawan, Edy; Erdmann, Mark V.; Lewis, Sarah A.; Mambrasar, Ronald; Hasan, Abdi W.; Templeton, Sabine; Beale, Calvin S.; Sianipar, Abraham B.; Shidqi, Rafid; Heuschkel, Hendrik; Ambafen, Orgenes; Izuan, Muhamad; Prasetia, Mohammad Fakhri; Azizah, Hidayati; Hidayat, Ismu N.; Pada, Defy N.; Muljadi, Andreas; Pilkington- Vincett, Rebecca; Dharmadi; Cerutti-Pereyra

The Bird’s Head Seascape (BHS) in West Papua, Indonesia, is widely recognized as the global epicenter of coral reef biodiversity and is protected by an extensive network of 20 marine protected areas (MPAs) totaling over 4.7 million ha. It is home to large populations of both the reef manta ray Mobula alfredi (Krefft, 1868) and the oceanic manta Mobula birostris (Walbaum, 1792). We document the natural history of manta rays in the BHS and describe the demographics and spatial ecology of Mobula alfredi using underwater and aerial observations.

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