Journal article Open Access

Evaluation of the Potential of Agricultural Waste Recovery: Energy Densification as a Factor for Residual Biomass Logistics Optimization

Leonel J. R. Nunes; João C. O. Matias; Liliana M. E. F. Loureiro; Letícia C. R. Sá; Hugo F. C. Silva; Abel M. Rodrigues; Thomas P. Causer; David B. DeVallance; Daniel E. Ciolkosz

The use of residual forms of biomass, resulting from processes of transformation of the agri-food and/or forest industries, presents itself as an alternative with high potential for energy recovery, given the existing availability, both from the perspective of quantities, but also from the perspective of geographic distribution. In this work, samples of four by-products originating from the agri-food industry were collected, namely coconut shells, sugarcane bagasse, cashew nutshells, and palm kernel shells, which were characterized in the laboratory by determining their Thermogravimetric and Elemental analysis, subsequently calculating the High Heating Value, Low Heating Value, Hardgrove Grindability Index, Mass Yield, Energy Yield, and Energy Densification Ratio. The values obtained show the potential to optimize logistical operations related to transportation, demonstrating that energy densification operations, especially if associated with physical densification processes, enable the use of these residual forms of biomass in the replacement of fossil fuels, such as coal.

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