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Mitochondrial oxygen consumption and reactive oxygen species production in hepatopancreas mitochondria of Mya arenaria acclimated under different oxygen regimes

Ouillon, Natascha; Sokolov, Eugene; Otto, Stefan; Rehder, Gregor; Sokolova, inna

These are the metadata for a publication "Effects of variable oxygen regimes on mitochondrial bioenergetics and reactive oxygen species production in a marine bivalve Mya arenaria" under consideration for publication in the Journal Of Experimental Biology.  To study the impacts of different oxygen regimes, we exposed a common sediment-dwelling bivalve, the soft-shell clam Mya arenaria, for 21 days to chronic hypoxia (PO2~4.1 kPa), cyclic hypoxia (PO2~12.7-1.9 kPa, mean = 5.7 kPa), or normoxia (PO2~21.1 kPa). pH was manipulated to mimic the covariation in CO2/pH and oxygen levels in coastal hypoxic zones. Mitochondrial respiration, including the proton leak, the capacity for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), the maximum activity of the electron transport system (ETS), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and activity and oxygen affinity of cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) were assessed. Acclimation to constant hypoxia did not affect the studied mitochondrial traits except for a modest decrease in the OXPHOS coupling efficiency. Cyclic hypoxia had no effect on the OXPHOS or ETS capacity, but increased the proton leak and lowered the mitochondrial OXPHOS coupling efficiency. Furthermore, mitochondria of clams acclimated to cyclic hypoxia had higher rates of ROS generation compared with the clams acclimated to normoxia or chronic hypoxia. CCO activity was upregulated under the cyclic hypoxia, but oxygen affinity of CCO did not change. These findings indicate that long-term cyclic hypoxia has a stronger impact on the mitochondria of M. arenaria than chronic hypoxia and might lead to impaired ATP synthesis, higher costs of the mitochondrial maintenance and oxidative stress. These changes might negatively affect populations of M. arenaria in the coastal Baltic Sea under increasing hypoxia pressure.

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