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Conference paper Open Access

A Systematic Assessment of Embedded Neural Networks for Object Detection

Verucchi, Micaela; Brilli, Gianluca; Sapienza, Davide; Verasani, Mattia; Arena, Marco; Gatti, Francesco; Capotondi, Alessandro; Cavicchioli, Roberto; Bertogna, Marko; Solieri, Marco

Object detection is arguably one of the most important and complex tasks to enable the advent of next-generation autonomous systems. Recent advancements in deep learning techniques allowed a significant improvement in detection accuracy and latency of modern neural networks, allowing their adoption in automotive, avionics and industrial embedded systems, where performances are required to meet size, weight and power constraints.Multiple benchmarks and surveys exist to compare state-of-the-art detection networks, profiling important metrics, like precision, latency and power efficiency on Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) embedded platforms. However, we observed a fundamental lack of fairness in the existing comparisons, with a number of implicit assumptions that may significantly bias the metrics of interest. This includes using heterogeneous settings for the input size, training dataset, threshold confidences, and, most importantly, platform-specific optimizations, that are especially important when assessing latency and energy-related values. The lack of uniform comparisons is mainly due to the significant effort required to re-implement network models, whenever openly available, on the specific platforms, to properly configure the available acceleration engines for optimizing performance, and to re-train the model using a homogeneous dataset.This paper aims at filling this gap, providing a comprehensive and fair comparison of the best-in-class Convolution Neural Networks (CNNs) for real-time embedded systems, detailing the effort made to achieve an unbiased characterization on cutting-edge system-on-chips. Multi-dimensional trade-offs are explored for achieving a proper configuration of the available programmable accelerators for neural inference, adopting the best available software libraries. To stimulate the adoption of fair benchmarking assessments, the framework is released to the public in an open source repository.

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