Journal article Open Access
A. Rashmi, V.Manidhar, Dr. B.Rama
Background- Lung cancer is one of the most aggressive, rapidly metastasizing and prevalent type of malignancy globally and is the major cause of morbidity and mortality. Aim- The study aims at analyzing the epidemiological patterns of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in South India. Materials and methods- This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data conducted at a government cancer hospital after the ethics committee clearance. The study was conducted for a duration of six months (October 2019 to March 2020). Required patient’s data was collected from their case sheets. Obtained data was then entered and analyzed in SPSS. Results- 140 patients were included in the study, majority (70%) were males and 30% were females. The male: female ratio was 2.3:1. Large number of patients were within the age group of 41-60 years and about 63% were smokers and 37% were non-smokers. The most common type of histology was adenocarcinoma (60%) and common symptom at presentation was SOB in majority of patients. Statistically higher occurrence of all the histology types were seen in smokers than non-smokers. Bone followed by lung were the most common sites of metastases. A significant correlation was found between the adenocarcinoma histology among non-smokers and squamous cell histology among smokers. Most of the subjects were diagnosed in advanced stages (stage-4), thus treatment provided was mostly palliative in nature. Subjects with adenocarcinoma and with EGFR mutation were benefited when treated with Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor- Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) Gefitinib. Conclusion- Smoking still remains the major risk factor. Males and smokers are at a higher risk of developing lung cancer when compared to females and non-smokers. Adenocarcinoma is the most commonly seen type of histology among non-smokers and squamous cell type of histology among smokers. Our study demonstrates the global shift of rise in adenocarcinoma histology in India. This information may help the clinicians for better understanding of the present scenario of the NSCLC histology epidemic which may further help in planning of better health care interventions.