Journal article Open Access

PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CRESCENTIA CUJETE LINNAEUS STEM BARK (BIGNONIACEAE)

*Ugwoke Christopher Emeka Chukwunonye, Diovu Edith Obioma, Anze Sunday Patrick Gaza and Chukwube Vincent Obisike

Crescentia cujete tree is widely and various used for wood, household materials, culinary and therapeutic purposes. Virtually all parts of this tree are useful across tropical and subtropical continents. Aim: this study covers the pharmacognostic standardization of the stem bark of C. cujete to ensure identity, quality control and purity of the plant drug material. The antimicrobial potential was also assayed to form a scientific basis for such claims by traditional therapists. Materials and Methods: This involved macroscopical studies via botanical examination techniques, anatomical sections of fresh samples of the stem bark, microscopic studies of powdered stem bark, with photomicrograps, and physicochemical (analytical) evaluation. Methanolic crude extract and various fractions were made and tested on clinical isolates of Bacillus subtitlis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger, using agar well (8 mm) diffusion. Results: the tree has pale to brown multiple trunks, smooth surface and brown nodules. Cut stem bark is cylindrical. Microscopy revealed calcium oxalate embedded in the cork, bundles of elongated fibres, sclerenchymatous and phloem parenchymatous cells. Alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, resins, carbohydrates, proteins, and fatty oils were detected. Antimicrobial inhibition was observed in the reconstituted extract and serial dilution for MIC. This was concentration dependent and increased in the order: EF>MF>HF>MCE. Conclusion: The Pharmacognostic features revealed are essential in creating a monograph of the plant. More so, the observed antimicrobial activity gave credence to claims of its use in ethnopharmacology. Keywords: Crescentia cujete, macroscopical, physicochemical, clinical isolates, parenchyma

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