Journal article Open Access


Tymosiewicz Piotr

Models of adult temperament

Temperament is considered the most biological and stable part of one’s personality. Cognition and understanding of your own temperament seems to be essential for good functioning in interpersonal relationships. This article analyzes the selected theoretical models of an adult persons temperament. It presents temperament models developed by such outstanding psychologists as Eysenck, Gray, Zuckerman and Mehrabian. In addition, the article presents the temperament theory of polish researcher Jan Strelau.

Files (369.8 kB)
Name Size
369.8 kB Download
  • Aluja, A., Kuhlman, M. e Zuckerman, M. (2010). Development of the Zuckerman - Kuhlman - Aluja Personality Questionnaire (ZKA-PQ): A factor/facet version of the Zuckerman - Kuhlman - Aluja Personality Questionnaire (ZKA-PQ). Journal of Personality Assessment, 92 (5), 416-431.

  • Caprara, G. V. e Ceryone, D. (2003). Personalita. Determinanti, dinamiche, potenzialita. Milano: Raffaello Cortina.

  • Caprara, G. V. e Gennaro, A. (1999). Psicologia della personalita. Storia, indirizzi teorici e temi di ricerca. Bologna: Il Mulino.

  • Daitzman, R. J. e Zuckerman, M. (1980). Disinhibitory sensation seeking personality, and gonadal hormones. Personality and Individual Differences, 1 (2), 103-110.

  • Eysenck, H. J. (1947). Dimensions of personality. New York: Preager.

  • Eysenck, H. J. (1952). The Scientific Study of Personality. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

  • Eysenck, H. J. (1978). Superfactors P, E, and N in a comprehensive factor space. Multi- variate Behavioral Research, 13 (4), 475-482.

  • Eysenck, H. J. (1990a). Biological dimensions of personality. In: L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (244-276). New York: Guilford Press.

  • Eysenck, H. J. (1990b). Genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences: The three major dimensions of personality. Journal of Personality, 58 (1), 245-261.

  • Eysenck, H. J. (1992). The definition and measurement of psychoticism. Personality and Individual Differences, 13 (7), 757-785.

  • Eysenck, H. J. e Eysenck, M. W. (1976). Psychoticism as a Dimension of Personality. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

  • Eysenck, H. J. e Eysenck, M. W. (1985). Personality and Individual Differences: A Natu- ral Science Approach. New York: Plenum Press.

  • Eysenck, H. J. e Eysenck, S. B. G. (1975). Manual of the Eysenck Personality Question- naire. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

  • Eysenck, H. J. e Prell, D. (1951). The inheritance of neuroticism: on experimental study. The Journal of Mental Health, 97 (8), 441-465.

  • Franta, H. (1982). Psicologia della personalita. Individualita e formazione integrale. Roma: LAS.

  • Gray, J. A. (1991). The neuropsychology of temperament. In: J. Strelau e A. Angleitner (Eds.), Exploration in temperament: International perspectives on theory and measurement (105-128). New York: Plenum Press.

  • Hebb, D. O. (1955). Drives and the C.N.S. (Conceptual Nervous System). Psychological Review, 62 (4), 243-254.

  • Mehrabian, A. (1991). Outline of a General Emotion-Based Theory of Temperament. In: J. Strelau e A. Angleitner (Eds.), Exploration in temperament: Internationalperspectives on theory and measurement (75-86). New York: Plenum Press.

  • Mehrabian, A. e Russell, J. A. (1974a). An Approach to Environmental Psychology. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press.

  • Mehrabian, A. e Russell, J. A. (1974b). The basic emotional impact of environments. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 38 (1), 283-301.

  • Strelau, J. (1974). Koncepcja temperamentu jako poziomu energetycznego i charakterystyki czasowej działania. In: J. Strelau (Ed.), Rola cech temperamentalnych w działaniu, (9-26). Wrocław: Ossolineum.

  • Strelau, J. (1985). Temperament, osobowość, działanie. Warszawa: PWN.

  • Strelau, J. (2006). Temperament jako regulator zachowania. Z perspektywy półwiecza badań. Gdańsk: GWP.

  • Strelau, J. (2012). Psychologia temperamentu. Warszawa: PWN.

  • Strelau, J. e Zawadzki, B. (2011). Psychologia różnic indywidualnych. In: J. Strelau e D. Doliński (Eds.), Psychologia. Podręcznik akademicki. Tom 1 (765-846). Gdańsk: GWP.

  • Zawadzki, B. e Strelau, J. (2010). Formalna Charakterystyka Zachowania - Kwestionariusz Temperamentu (FCZ-KT). Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.

  • Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation Seeking: Beyond the Optimal Level of Arousal. Hill- sdale: Erlbaum.

  • Zuckerman, M. (1984). Sensation seeking: A comparative approach to a human trait. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 7 (3), 413-434.

  • Zuckerman, M. (2012). Models of adult temperament. In: M. Zentner e R. L. Shiner (Eds.), Handbook of Temperament (41-66). New York: Guilford Press.

All versions This version
Views 1313
Downloads 77
Data volume 2.6 MB2.6 MB
Unique views 66
Unique downloads 77


Cite as