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Dataset Open Access

SM2RAIN-ASCAT (2007-2019): global daily satellite rainfall from ASCAT soil moisture

Luca Brocca; Paolo Filippucci; Sebastian Hahn; Luca Ciabatta; Christian Massari; Stefania Camici; Lothar Schüller; Bojan Bojkov; Wolfgang Wagner

SM2RAIN-ASCAT is a new global scale rainfall product obtained from ASCAT satellite soil moisture data through the SM2RAIN algorithm (Brocca et al., 2014). The SM2RAIN-ASCAT rainfall dataset (in mm/day) is provided over an irregular grid at 12.5 km on a global scale. The product represents the accumulated rainfall between the 00:00 and the 23:59 UTC of the indicated day. The SM2RAIN method was applied to the ASCAT soil moisture product (Wagner et al., 2013) for the period from January 2007 to 31 December 2019 (13 years), for version 1.2.

The rainfall dataset is provided in netCDF format. A total of 13 netCDF files, one per year, are provided. The quality flag provided with the dataset has been used to mask out low quality data, as well as the areas characterised by complex topographic, frozen soil, and presence of tropical forests.

A GeoTIFF version of the dataset is available here (to be updated):

A sample dataset that can be used for testing SM2RAIN algorithm is available here:

Details on the dataset development and its assessment with ground and reanalysis observations are provided as:

Brocca, L., Filippucci, P., Hahn, S., Ciabatta, L., Massari, C., Camici, S., Schüller, L., Bojkov, B., Wagner, W. (2019). SM2RAIN-ASCAT (2007-2018): global daily satellite rainfall from ASCAT soil moisture. Earth System Science Data, 11, 1583–1601, doi:10.5194/essd-11-1583-2019.

Simple Python and Matlab codes for the extraction of SM2RAIN-ASCAT rainfall at one and multiple station(s) \location(s) are available at:

The SM2RAIN code in Python is available here 
The SM2RAIN code in Matlab is available here



  • EUMETSAT Global SM2RAIN project (contract n° EUM/CO/17/4600001981/BBo)
  • EUMETSAT “Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H SAF)” CDOP 3 (EUM/C/85/16/DOC/15).

Dataset extended to the end of 2019. With respect to version 1.1 we have changed with Other files (2007-2018) unchanged Fixed three errors wrt version 1.0: 1) missing data (2013-2018) in one small region in Mexico 2) missing data on 31-dec-2017 and 1-jan-2018 3) updated snow probability flag
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  • Brocca, L., Filippucci, P., Hahn, S., Ciabatta, L., Massari, C., Camici, S., Schüller, L., Bojkov, B., and Wagner, W. (2019). SM2RAIN-ASCAT (2007–2018): global daily satellite rainfall from ASCAT soil moisture, Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,, in review.

  • Brocca, L., Ciabatta, L., Massari, C., Moramarco, T., Hahn, S., Hasenauer, S., Kidd, R., Dorigo, W., Wagner, W., Levizzani, V. (2014). Soil as a natural rain gauge: estimating global rainfall from satellite soil moisture data. Journal of Geophysical Research, 119(9), 5128-5141, doi:10.1002/2014JD021489.

  • Wagner, W., Hahn, S., Kidd, R., Melzer, T., Bartalis, Z., Hasenauer, S., Figa, J., de Rosnay, P., Jann, A., Schneider, S., Komma, J., Kubu, G., Brugger, K., Aubrecht, C., Zuger, J., Gangkofner, U., Kienberger, S., Brocca, L., Wang, Y., Bloeschl, G., Eitzinger, J., Steinnocher, K., Zeil, P., Rubel, F. (2013). The ASCAT Soil Moisture Product: A Review of its Specifications, Validation Results, and Emerging Applications. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 22(1), 5-33, doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0399.

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