Dataset Open Access

Nbody 3D Histograms dataset

Janis Fluri; Nathanael Perraudin

3Dcosmo: a benchmark dataset for large 3-dimensional generative models (and 2-dimensional as well)

This is the N-body simulations 3D images dataset used in the paper Cosmological N-body simulations: a challenge for scalable generative models, Nathanaël Perraudin, Ankit Srivastava, Aurelien Lucchi, Tomasz Kacprzak, Thomas Hofmann, Alexandre Refregier

The dataset does not contain the Nbody simulations as they have a very large size. Instead, we sliced the space into 256 x 256 x 256 cubical areas and counted the number of particules in each area. The result are 3D histograms, where the number of particles is a proxy for matter density.

3DCosmo benchmark

This dataset can be used to evaluate 2D and 3D generative model. It is particularly suitable for large scale 3D images. Please check for more information.

Please consider citing our paper if you use it.

  title = {Cosmological N-body simulations: a challenge for scalable generative models},
  author = {Nathana\"el, Perraudin and Ankit, Srivastava and Kacprzak, Tomasz and Lucchi, Aurelien and Hofmann, Thomas and R{\'e}fr{\'e}gier, Alexandre},
  year = {2019},
  archivePrefix = {arXiv},
  eprint = {1908.05519},
  url = {},

While this data is associated to the paper Cosmological N-body simulations: a challenge for scalable generative models, note that a the same Nbody simulation were used in the paper Fast Cosmic Web Simulations with Generative Adversarial Networks (, but with a different way of building the histogram. You may want to cite this work as well.

  title={Fast cosmic web simulations with generative adversarial networks},
  author={Rodr{\'\i}guez, Andres C and Kacprzak, Tomasz and Lucchi, Aurelien and Amara, Adam and Sgier, Rapha{\"e}l and Fluri, Janis and Hofmann, Thomas and R{\'e}fr{\'e}gier, Alexandre},
  journal={Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology},

N-body simulation evolves a cosmological matter distribution over time, starting from soon after the big bang. It represents matter density distribution as a finite set of massive particles, typically order of trillions. The positions of these particles are modified due to gravitational forces and expansion of the cosmological volume due to cosmic acceleration. N-body simulations use periodic boundary condition, where particles leaving the volume on one face enter it back from the opposite side.

Short description of the data generation:

We created N-body simulations of cosmic structures in boxes of size 100 Mpc and 500 Mpc with 512^3 and 1,024^3 particles respectively. We used L-PICOLA [21] to create 10 and 30 independent simulation boxes for both box sizes. The cosmological model used was ΛCDM (Cold Dark Matter) with Hubble constant H0 = 500, h = 350 km s−1 Mpc−1, dark energy density Omega_Lambda = 0.72 and matter density Omega_m = 0.28. We used the particle distribution at redshift z = 0.

For additional information, please check the

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