Journal article Open Access

INHIBITORY EFFECT OF ETHANOL PICRALIMA NITIDA SEED EXTRACT ON MALARIA PARASITE

Nwankwo, N.E., Egbuonu, A.C.C., *Joshua, P.E., Okeke, E.S., Cosmas S., Arazu A. V and Nwodo, O.F.C.

Parts of Picralima nitida are used by traditional medicine practitioners to treat illnesses such as diabetes and gastro-intestinal problems. Pulverized dried seeds of Picralima nitida were extracted using ethanol. The phytochemical composition of the seeds sample; LD50 and the effect of seeds extract on parasitaemia were determined. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening of the seeds sample revealed flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, steroids, alkaloids, soluble carbohydrates, reducing sugars, tannins, terpenoids, phenols and hydrogen cyanides. The acute toxicity test (LD50) of the extract was above 5000 mg/kg b.w, this may be relatively safe if consumed. Malaria infected mice groups treated with 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg b.w. of the extract showed significant (p < 0.05) reduction in parasitamia compared to normal mice in group treated with 3 % Tween 80 on days 3 and 5 post treatment. Thus, the seed extract of Picralima nitida have rich content of the determined phytochemicals, exhibited safe and significant activity against the rodent malaria parasite.

Keywords: phytochemical, acute toxicity, parasitaemia, malaria, bioactive.

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