Dataset Open Access
This dataset is a compilation of geographic rasters from multiple environmental data sources. It aims at making the life of SDM users easier. All rasters cover the metropolitan French territory, but have varying resolutions and projections. Each directory inside the main directory "0_mydata" contain a single environmental raster. Punctual extraction of raster values can be easily done for large sets of WGS84-(longitude,latitude) points coordinates and for multiple rasters at the same time through the R function get_variables of script _functions.R from Github repository: https://github.com/ChrisBotella/SamplingEffort. All data sources are accessible on the web and free of use, at least for scientific purpose. They have various conditions of citations. Anyone diffusing a work using the present data must reference along with the present DOI, the original source data employed. Those source data are described in the paragraphs below. We provide the articles to cite, when required, and webpages for access.
Pedologic Descriptors of the ESDB v2: 1 km × 1 km Raster Library : The library contains multiple soil pedology (physico-chemical properties of the soil) descriptors raster layers covering Eurasia at a resolution of 1 km. We selected 11 descriptors from the library. They come from the PTRDB. The PTRDB variables have been directly derived from the initial soil classification of the Soil Geographical Data Base of Europe (SGDBE) using expert rules. For more details, see [1, 2] and . The data is maintained and distributed freely for scientific use by the European Soil Data Centre (ESDAC) at http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/content/european-soil-databasev2-raster. The 11 rasters are in the directories "awc_top", "bs_top", "cec_top", "dimp", "crusting", "erodi", "dgh", "text", "vs", "oc_top", "pd_top".
Corine Land Cover 2012, Version 18.5.1, 12/2016 : It is a raster layer describing soil occupation with 48 categories across Europe (25 countries) at a resolution of 100 m. This data base of the European Union is freely accessible online for all use at http://land.copernicus.eu/pan-european/corine-land-cover/clc-2012. The raster of this variable is in the directory "clc".
Hydrographic Descriptor of BD Carthage v3: BD Carthage is a spatial relational database holding many informations on the structure and nature of the french metropolitan hydrological network. For the purpose of plants ecological niche, we focus on the geometric segments representing watercourses, and polygons representing hydrographic fresh surfaces. The data has been produced by the Institut National de l’information Géographique et forestière (IGN) from an interpretation of the BD Ortho IGN. It is maintained by the SANDRE under free license for non-profit use and downloadable at:
From this shapefile, we derived a raster containing the binary value raster proxi_eau_fast, i.e. proximity to fresh water, all over France.We used qgis to rasterize to a 12.5m resolution, with a buffer of 50m, the shapefile COURS_D_EAU.shp on
one hand, and the polygons of SURFACES_HYDROGRAPHIQUES.shp with attribute NATURE=“Eau douce
permanente” on the other hand.We then created the maximum raster of the previous ones (So the value of 1 correspond to an approximate distance of less than 50m to a watercourse or hydrographic surface of fresh water). The raster is in the directory named "proxi_eau_fast".
USGS Digital Elevation Data : The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission achieved in 2010 by Endeavour shuttle measured elevation at three arc second resolution over most of the earth surface. Raw measures have been post-processed by NASA and NGA in order to correct detection anomalies. The data is available from the U.S. Geological Survey, and downloadable on the Earthexplorer (https://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/). One may refer to https://www.usgs.gov/centers/eros/science/usgs-eros-archive-digital-elevation-shuttle-radar-topography-mission-srtm-void?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects for more informations. the elevation raster is in the directory named "alti".
Potential Evapotranspiration of CGIAR-CSI ETP : The CGIAR-CSI distributes this worldwide monthly potential-evapotranspiration raster data. It is pulled from a model developed by Antonio Trabucco [4, 5]. Those are estimated by the Hargreaves formula, using mean monthly surface temperatures and standard deviation from WorldClim 1:4 (http://www.worldclim. org/), and radiation on top of atmosphere. The raster is at a 1km resolution, and is
freely downloadable for a nonprofit use at: http://www.cgiar-csi.org/data/global-aridity-and-pet-database#description. This raster is in the directory "etp".
Bioclimatic Descriptors of Chelsea Climate Data 1.1: Those are raster data with worldwide coverage and 1 km resolution. A mechanistical climatic model is used to make spatial predictions of monthly mean-max-min temperatures, mean precipitations and 19 bioclimatic variables, which are downscaled with statistical models integrating historical measures of meteorologic stations from 1979 to today. The exact method is explained in the reference papers  and . The data is under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License and downloadable at (http://chelsa-climate.org/downloads/). The 19 bioclimatic rasters are located in the directories named "chbio_X".
ROUTE500 1.1: This database register classified road linkages between cities (highways, national roads, and departmental roads) in France in shapefile format, representing approxi-mately 500,000 km of roads. It is produced under free license (all uses) by the IGN. Data are available online at http://osm13.openstreetmap.fr/~cquest/route500/. For deriving the variable “droute_fast”, the distance to the main roads networks, we computed with qGis the distance raster to the union of all elements of the shapefile ROUTES.shp (segments).
 Panagos, P. (2006). The European soil database. GEO: connexion, 5(7), 32–33.
 Panagos, P., Van Liedekerke, M., Jones, A., Montanarella, L. (2012). European Soil Data
Centre: Response to European policy support and public data requirements. Land Use Policy,
 Van Liedekerke, M. Jones, A. & Panagos, P. (2006). ESDBv2 Raster Library-a set of rasters
derived from the European Soil Database distribution v2. 0. European Commission and the
European Soil Bureau Network, CDROM, EUR, 19945.
 Zomer, R., Bossio, D., Trabucco, A., Yuanjie, L., Gupta, D. & Singh, V. (2007). Trees and
water: smallholder agroforestry on irrigated lands in Northern India.
 Zomer, R., Trabucco, A., Bossio, D. & Verchot, L. (2008). Climate change mitigation: A
spatial analysis of global land suitability for clean development mechanism afforestation and
reforestation. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment, 126(1), 67–80.
 Karger, D. N., Conrad, O., Bohner, J., Kawohl, T., Kreft, H., Soria-Auza, R.W. & Kessler,
M. (2016). Climatologies at high resolution for the earth’s land surface areas. arXiv preprint
 Karger, D. N., Conrad, O., Bohner, J., Kawohl, T., Kreft, H., Soria-Auza, R.W. & Kessler, M.
(2016). CHELSEA climatologies at high resolution for the earth’s land surface areas (Version