Journal article Open Access
Prof. Dhanapal Venkatachalam
Objective: To study detailed pharmacognostic profile and preliminary phytochemical investigation of whole plant of Enicostemma littorale (Gentianaceae) is a perennial herb found throughout India. It is traditionally used as anti-diabetic, urinary astringent, anti-periodic, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, laxative and hepatoprotective. Methods:/ Leaf, stem and root samples of E.littorale were studied by Macroscopical, Microscopical, Physiochemical, Phytochemical analysis of powder of the plant and other methods for standardization recommended by WHO. Results: Macroscopically, the leaves are simple. lanceolate, obtuse or acute, fresh leaves are dark green in colour; bitter taste and characteristic odour. Microscopically, the leaf showed the distinct epidermal layer of small squarish cells with prominent cuticle. Calcium oxalate crystals of druses or Sphaerocrystals are widespread in the leaf-mesophyll tissue. The anisocytic type stomata observed more prominently. Single basal cell, multi -cellular, Non-glandular trichomes are the diagnostic features noted from anatomical study of the leaf. The salient features of stem were epidermis with thick cuticle, unilayered small cells compactly arranged. The diagnostic characters observed in the transverse section of the roots are thin walled, compact parenchyma cells, narrow xylem fibres. Powder microscopy of the powder revealed the presence of parenchyma cells, xylem fibres and epidermis with anisocytic stomata.Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, betacyanin, quinone, glycosides, phenols, flavanoids, and alkaloids. Conclusions: The above results given the valuable information of this plant it will helpful for the future studies of this plant.