The Dark Side of Internet Searches: A Macro Level Assessment of Rape Culture
Makin, David A.;
Morczek, Amber L.
Assessing the promulgation of rape culture in society or merely establishing at an empirical level the degree to which a nation reflects such attitudes or behaviors has remained of interest to scholars across numerous disciplines. One common limitation (or criticism) within prior empirical research is claims of lack of generalizability or influences of social desirability. This research employs the use of Google Trends data from 2004-2012, via nine keyword searches specific to rape-oriented pornography. We also include interest in the top five pornographic hubs. Findings suggest that there is both an interest in rape-oriented pornography and that interest across many search queries appear to be increasing.
Alexa. (2013, June 25). Alexa. Retrieved from Alexa: http://www.alexa.com.
Althouse, B. M., Ng, Y. Y., & Cummings, D. A. (2011). Prediction of Dengue Incidence Using Search Query Surveillance. Public Library of Science, 5(8), 1-7. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001258.
Anthony, S. (2012, April 4). Just how big are porn sites? Retrieved on 15th November 2014 from ExtremeTech: http://www.extremetech.com/computing/123929-just-how-big-are-porn-sites.
Argiero, S. D. (2010). A cultural perspective for understanding how campus environments perpetuate rape-supportive culture. Journal of the Indiana University Student Personnel Association, 43, 26-40.
Attwood, F. (2005). Qualitative research into the consumption, use, and experience of pornography and other sexually explicit media. Sexuality & Culture, 9(2), 65-86.
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. Media Psychology, 3, 265-299.
Baron, L. S. (1988). Legitimate violence, violent attitudes, and rape: A test of cultural spillover theory. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 528(1), 79-110. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1988.tb50853.x.
Bauserman, R. (1996). Sexual aggression and pornography: A review of correlation research. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 18, 405-427.
Belanger, E., & Meguid, B. M. (2008). Issue Salience, Issue Ownership, and Issue-Based Vote Choice. Electoral Studies, 477-791.
Bridges, A.J., Wosnitzer, R. Scharrer, E., Sun, C., & Liberman, R. (2010).Aggression and sexual behavior in best-selling pornography videos: A content analysis update. Violence Against Women, 16(10), 1065-1085.
Brosi, M. W. (2011). Effects of women’s pornography use on bystander intervention in a sexual assault situation and rape myth acceptance. Oracle: The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity/Sorority Advisors, 6(2), 26-35.
Brownmiller, S. (1975).Against Our Will: Men, Women, and Rape. New York: Bantam Books.
Burnett, A. M. (2009). Communicating / muting date rape: A co-cultural theoretical analysis of communication factors related to rape culture on a college campus. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 37(4).
Castells, M. (1996). The Rise of the Network Society. Oxford: Blackwells.
Chapleau, K. M. (2008). Male rape myths: The role of gender, violence, and sexism. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23(5), 600-615.
ComScore. (2012, December 12). comScore Releases November 2012 U.S. Search Engine Rankings. Retrieved on 15th November 2014 from comScore: http://www.comscore.com/Insights/Press_Releases/2012/12/comScore_Releases_November_2012_U.S._Search_Engine_Rankings.
Cook, S. (2012). How to progress from a rape-supportive culture. Women in Higher Education, 21(7), 16-17.
DeKeseredy, W. S., Muzzatti, S. L., Donnermeyer, J. F. (2014). Mad men in bib overalls: Media's horrification and pornification of rural culture. Critical Criminology, 22(2), 179-197. DOI 10.1007/s10612-013-9190-7.
DeKeseredy, W.S., & Olsson, P. (2011). Adult pornography, male peer support, and violence against women: The contribution of the "dark side" of the Internet. In M. Vargas Martin, M. A. Garcia-Ruiz, & A. Edwards (Eds.), Technology for facilitating humanity and combating social deviations: Interdisciplinary perspectives (pp. 34-50). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Dick, K. (2012). The invisible war [DVD].
Dines, G. (2010). Pornland: How porn has hijacked our sexuality. Beacon Press: Boston, Massachusetts.
Donnerstein, E., & Linz, D. (1970). Mass Media, Sexual Violence, and Male Viewers: Current Theory and Research. American Behavioral Scientist, 29(5), 601-618. DOI: 10.1177/000276486029005007.
Dusenbery, M. (2013, April 15). Why are teenage rape survivors being driven to suicide? Retrieved on 15th November 2014 from http://feministing.com/2013/04/15/why-are-teenage-rape-survivors-being-driven-to-suicide.
D’Amato, A. (2006). Porn up, rape down. Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper Series. Retrieved on 15th November 2014 from http://anthonydamato.law.northwestern.edu/adobefiles/porn.pdf.
Edwards, K. (2009). Effectiveness of a Social Change Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention. College Student Affairs Journal, 28(1), 22-37.
Ferguson, C. J. (2009). The pleasure is momentary…the expense damnable?: The influence of pornography on rape and sexual assault. Aggression and violent behavior, 14(5), 323-329.
Fisher, W., &. Barak, A. (2000). Internet pornography: A social psychological perspective on Internet sexuality. The Journal of Sex Research, 38(4), 312-323.
Fletcher, P. (2010). Dismantling rape culture around the world: A social justice imperative. Forum on Public Policy: A Journal of the Oxford Round Table, 6(4), 1.
Flood, M. &. Pease, B. (2009).Factors influencing violence toward women. Trauma, violence, & Abuse, 10(2), 125-142.
Franiuk, R. S. (2008). Prevalence and effects of rape myths in print journalism: The Kobe Bryant case. Violence Against Women, 14(3), 287-309.
Ginsberg, J., Mohebb, M. H., Patel, R. S., Brammer, L., Smolinski, M. S., & et al. (2009).Detecting Influenza Epidemics Using Search Engine Query Data. Nature, 1012-1014.
Goel, S., Hoffman, J. M., Lahaie, S., Pennock, D. M., & Watts, D. J. (2010). Predicting Consumer Behavior with Web Search. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 17486-17490.
Gorman, S., Monk-Turner, E. & Fish, J.N. (2010). Free adult Internet websites: How prevalent are degrading acts? Gender Issues, 27, 131-145.
Gossett, J., & Bryne, S. (2002). “Click here”: A Content Analysis of Internet Rape Sites. Gender Society, 16(5), 689-709.
Greenfield, P., & Yan, Z. (2006). Children, Adolescents, and the Internet: A New Field of Inquiry in Developmental Psychology. Developmental Psychology, 42(3), 391-394.
Hald, G. M. (2010). Pornography and attitudes supporting violence against women: revisiting the relationship in nonexperimental studies. Aggressive Behavior, 36, 14-20.
Heise, L. L. (1998). Violence Against Women: An Integrated, Ecological Framework. Violence Against Women, 4(3), 262-290.
Herman, D. (1989). The Rape Culture. In J. Freeman (Ed.), Women: A Feminist Perspective (pp. 20-44). Mountain View, California: Mayfield.
Hockett, J. S. (2009). Oppression through acceptance? Predicting rape myth acceptance and attitudes toward rape victims. Violence Against Women, 15(8), 877-897.
Jaishankar, K. (2008). Space transition theory of cyber crimes. In F. Schmalleger & M. Pittaro (Eds.), Crimes of the Internet (pp. 283-301). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Jensen, R. (2011). Stories of a Rape Culture: Pornography as Propaganda. In M. &. Tankard-Reist, Big Porn Inc. Exposing the Harms of the Global pornography Industry (pp. 25-33). North Melbourne, Australia: Spinifex Press Pty Ltd.
Jones, S. &. Mowlabocus, S. (2009). Hard times and rough rides: The legal and ethical impossibilities of research ‘shock’ pornographies. Sexualities, 12(5), 613-628.
Kahlor, L. &. Eastin, M.S. (2011). Television's role in the culture of violence toward women: A study of television viewing and the cultivation of rape myth acceptance in the United States. Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 55(2), 215-231.
Klaw, E. L. (2008). Challenging rape culture: Awareness, emotion, and action through campus acquaintance rape education. Women & Therapy, 28(2), 47-63.
Library of Congress. (2013, May 1). Web Archiving. Retrieved from Library of Congress: on 15th November 2014 from http://www.loc.gov/webarchiving/faq.html#5.
Malamuth, N. H. (2012). Pornography, individual differences in risk and men’s acceptance of violence against women in a representative sample. Sex Roles, 66, 427-439.
Malamuth, N. M. (2000). Pornography and sexual aggression: Are there reliable effects and can we understand them? Annual review of sex research, 11(1), 26-91.
Marhan, A., Saucan, D., Popa, C., &Danciu, B. (2012). Searching Internet: A Report on Accessibility, Nature, and Quality of Suicide-Related Information. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 33, 373-377.
McCarthy, M. (2010). Internet monitoring of suicide risk in the population. Journal of Affective Disorders, 122(3), 277-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2009.08.015.
Miller, M. J., & Tewksbury, R. (2001). Extreme Methods: Innovative Approaches to Social Science Research. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Miller, P., & Biele, N. (1993). Twenty years later: The unfinished revolution. In E. F. Buchwald, Transforming a rape culture. (pp. 47-54). Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions.
Miniwatts Marketing Group. (2013, February 17). Internet World Stats. Retrieved from Internet World Stats: http://www.Internetworldstats.com/stats.htm
Morales, L. (2011, February 17). Google and Facebook Users Skew Young, Affluent, and Educated. Retrieved on 15th November 2014 from Gallup: http://www.gallup.com/poll/146159/facebook-google-users-skew-young-affluent-educated.aspx.
Ogas, O. & Gaddam, S. (2010). A Billion Wicked Thoughts: What the Internet tells us about sexual relationships. Strand, London: Penguin Group.
Paul, P. (2005). Pornified: How pornography is Transforming our Lives, our Relationships, and our Families. New York: Times Books.
Pazzani, L. (2007). The factors affecting sexual assaults committed by strangers and acquaintances. Violence Against Women, 13(7), 717-749.
Picker, M. &. Sun, C. (Director). (2008). The price of pleasure: Pornography, sexuality & relationships [Motion Picture].
Prince, S. (1990). Power and pain: Content analysis and the ideology of pornography. . Journal of Film and Video, 42(2), 31-41.
Reilly, S., Richey, S., & Taylor, B. J. (2012). Using Google Search Data for State Politics Research. State Politics & Policy Quarterly, 12(2), 146-159.
Reis , B. Y., & Brownstein, J. S. (2010). Measuring the Impact of Health Policies Using Internet Search Patterns: The Case of Abortion. BMC Public Health, 10, 514 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-514.
Ripberger, J. T. (2011). Capturing Curiosity: Using Internet Search Trends to Measure Public Attentiveness. Policy Studies Journal, 39(2), 239–259. DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-0072.2011.00406.x.
Scharkow, M., & Vogelgesang, J. (2011). Measuring the Public Agenda using Search Engine Queries. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 23(1),104-113. DOI: 10.1093/ijpor/edq048.
Scheitle, C. P. (2011). Google's Insights for Search: A Note Evaluating the Use of Search Engine Data in Social Research. Social Science Quarterly, 92(1), 285–295, March 2011. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-6237.2011.00768.x.
Short, M. B. (2012). A review of Internet pornography research: Methodology and content from the past 10 years. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networks, 15, 13-23.
Stepher, J., &. Reisman, J. (1985). Pornography: A sociological attempt at understanding. Ethology and Sociobiology, 6, 103-114.
Suarez, E., &. Gadalla, T. M. (2010). Stop blaming the victim: A meta-analysis on rape myths. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(11), 2010-2035.
Tankard-Reist, M. & Bray, A. (2011). Introduction: Unmasking a Global Industry. In M. &. Tankard-Reist (Eds.), Big Porn Inc. Exposing the harms of the global pornography industry (pp. xiii-xxvii). North Victoria: Spinifex Press Pty Ltd.
Tibbals, C. (2010). From the devil in miss jones to DMJ6: Power, inequality, and consistency in the content of US adult films. Sexualities, 13(5), 625-644.
Valenti, J. (2010). The Purity Myth: How America’s Obsession with Virginity is Hurting Young Women. Berkeley, California: Seal Press.
Valenti, J. (2013, March 22). [Web log message]. Retrieved on 15th November 2014 from http://www.thenation.com/blog/173481/whats-so-funny-about-steubenville.
Vega, V., & Malamuth, N. M. (2007). Predicting sexual aggression: The role of pornography in the context of general and specific risk factors. Aggressive Behavior, 33(2), 104-117.
Weeks, B., &Southwell, B. (2010). The Symbiosis of News Coverage and Aggregate Online Search Behavior: Obama, Rumors, and Presidential Politics. Mass Communication and Society, 13(4), 341-360. DOI: 10.1080/15205430903470532.
Yar, M. (2006). Cybercrime and society. London, United Kingdom: Sage.