Conference paper Open Access
Low-voltage distribution networks are emerging as an increasingly important component of power system operations. From a computational standpoint, the proactive utilization of these resources places daunting challenges due to their vast number and the non-linear physics that govern power flow in low-voltage networks. For this reason, a hierarchical approach to the organization of distribution markets which can better cope with computational scalability may be desirable. This paper models various alternatives to the coordination of transmission and distribution system operations, and investigates their relative performance on a small-scale network in terms of allocative efficiency, consistency with physical constraints, and pricing.