Journal article Open Access
Gubler, Duane J.
During the past 20 years there has been a dramatic resurgence or emergence of epidemic arboviral diseases affecting both humans and domestic animals. These epidemics have been caused primarily by viruses thought to be under control such as dengue, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis, or viruses that have expanded their geographic distribution such as West Nile and Rift Valley fever. Several of these viruses are presented as case studies to illustrate the changing epidemiology. The factors responsible for the dramatic resurgence of arboviral diseases in the waning years of the 20th century are discussed, as is the need for rebuilding the public health infrastructure to deal with epidemic vector-borne diseases in the 21st century.