Journal article Open Access

Fluorescent Pteridine Nucleoside Analogs: A Window on DNA Interactions

Hawkins, Mary E.

Pteridine nucleoside analog probes are highly fluorescent and offer different approaches to monitor subtle DNA interactions with other molecules. Similarities in structure and size to native nucleosides make it possible to incorporate these probes into oligonucleotides through the standard deoxyribose linkage. These probes are formulated as phosphoramidites and incorporated into oligonucleotides using automated DNA synthesis. Their position within the oligonucleotide renders them exquisitely sensitive to changes in structure as the oligonucleotide meets and reacts with other molecules. Changes are measured through fluorescence intensity, anisotropy, lifetimes, spectral shifts, and energy transfer. The fluorescence properties of pteridine nucleoside analogs as monomers and incorporated into single and double stranded oligonucleotides are reviewed. The two guanosine analogs, 3MI and 6MI, and two adenosine analogs, 6MAP and DMAP, are reviewed in detail along with applications utilizing them.

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