Journal article Open Access
Kunkel, Thomas A.; Erie, Dorothy A.
DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is an evolutionarily conserved process that corrects mismatches generated during DNA replication and escape proofreading. MMR proteins also participate in many other DNA transactions, such that inactivation of MMR can have wide-ranging biological consequences, which can be either beneficial or detrimental. We begin this review by briefly considering the multiple functions of MMR proteins and the consequences of impaired function. We then focus on the biochemical mechanism of MMR replication errors. Emphasis is on structure-function studies of MMR proteins, on how mismatches are recognized, on the process by which the newly replicated strand is identified, and on excision of the replication error.