The Complete Sequence and Promoter Activity of the Human A-raf-1 Gene (ARAF1)
Beck, Thomas W.;
deGennaro, Louis J.;
Rapp, Ulf R.
The raf proto-oncogenes encode cytoplasmic protein serine/threonine kinases, which play a critical role in cell growth and development. One of these, A-raf-1 (human gene symbol, ARAF1), which is predominantly expressed in mouse urogenital tissues, has been mapped to an evolutionarily conserved linkage group composed of ARAF1, SYN1, TIMP, and properdin located at human chromosome Xp11.2. We have isolated human genomic DNA clones containing the expressed gene (ARAF1) on the X chromosome and a pseudogene (ARAF2) on chromosome 7p12-q11.21. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence from the ARAF1 genomic clones demonstrated that it consists of 16 exons encoded by minimally 10,776 nucleotides. The major transcriptional start site (+1) was determined by RNase protection and primer extension assays. Promoter activity was confirmed by functional assays using DNA fragments fused to a CAT reporter gene. The ARAF1 minimal promoter, located between nucleotides -59 and +93, has a low G + C content and lacks consensus TATA and Inr sequences but shows sequence similarity at position -1 to the E box that is known to interact with USF and TFII-I transcription factors.