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Published August 15, 2023 | Version v1
Journal article Open

MENTAL DEPRESSION AS A RISK FACTOR FOR PERIODONTAL DISEASE

Description

Periodontitis is a chronic, multifactorial, polymicrobial disease causing inflammation in the supporting structures of the teeth. There is a plethora of non oral risk factors which have been reported to aid in the development of chronic periodontitis. Psychological stress and depression have been documented to have a negative impact on the periodontal health. Depression is associated with negligent oral health care leading to poor periodontal health.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the association between periodontal clinical parameters and depression.

Methodology: The study design was a case-control study with 25 patients each in the Case and Control group. Case group consisted of patients diagnosed with depression by a specialist in the medical OPD. Control group consisted of the patients living in the same environment with similar background characteristics. All the cases and controls were assessed for the severity of depression by Hamilton Depression rating scale and Beck Depression Inventory. Periodontal parameters were assessed by using Oral Hygiene index Debris Index (DI) and Calculus Index (CI), Gingival Index, Probing Pocket Depth (PPD) and Clinical attachment loss (CAL).

Results: In this study significant relationship is seen between subjects with depression and periodontal clinical parameters (DI, CI, GI, and PPD, CAL) as compared to the healthy subjects. Also it is seen that as the severity of depression increases, the periodontal condition deteriorates as reported by increased values of all the clinical parameters used in the study although, the relationship is not significant.

Conclusion: After evaluating depression and periodontal clinical parameters we came to a conclusion that both diseases are related to each other and that stress or depression highly affects the periodontal health and therefore can be considered as a risk factor to periodontitis.

 

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