Published June 20, 2023 | Version 1.0
Dataset Open

Initial Sample of HYPERNETS Hyperspectral Surface Reflectance Measurements for Satellite Validation from the Barrax Site in Spain

  • 1. National Physical Laboratory
  • 2. Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences

Description

The HYPERNETS project (www.hypernets.eu) has the overall aim to ensure that high quality in situ measurements are available to support the (VNIR/SWIR) optical Copernicus products. Therefore, it established a new autonomous hyperspectral spectroradiometer (HYPSTAR® - www.hypstar.eu) dedicated to land and water surface reflectance validation with instrument pointing capabilities. In the prototype phase, the instrument is being deployed at 24 sites covering a range of water and land types and a range of climatic and logistic conditions. This dataset provides the first published data for the Gobabeb HYPERNETS site in Barrax, Spain (BASP). It is a subset of the complete data record which consists of the best quality BASP measurements which could be used for satellite validation over the three day test deployment period. 

The provided NetCDF files are the L2A hypernets products with surface reflectances, their associated uncertainties and error-correlation information. The reflectance in the L2A products is the Hemispherical-directional Reflectance Factor (HDRF) defined as: HDRF = π L / E where L is the directional upwelling radiance (with field of view of 5 degrees) and E is the (hemispherical) downwelling irradiance (i.e. including both direct solar and diffuse sky irradiance). These reflectances have dimensions of wavelength and series, where each series is a set of measurements for a given geometry (combination of viewing zenith and azimuth angle). In addition to variables for wavelength and bandwidth, the files also contain variables that provide for each series the acquisition time, viewing and solar angles, number of valid scans used, and quality flags (typically no flags are set in the data provided in this dataset). These NetCDF files also contain further relevant metadata as attributes. See https://hypernets-processor.readthedocs.io/ for further info.

The BASP site was a temporary installation over the period of the 20th – 22nd July 2022 during the Surface Reflectance Intercomparison eXperiment (SRIX) campaign (https://frm4veg.org/srix4veg/) at the Las Tiesas experimental farm in Barrax, Spain. This location was selected due to its typical clear skies, flat terrain, and well-managed crops. The HYPSTAR®-XR (eXtended Range) was deployed in a small corn field next to the ongoing UAV experiment. The instrument was deployed on a 3.5m high pole with a short extended boom at 1.3m height from the crops, with measurements running every 30 minutes throughout the day (UTC+2) and measuring between viewing zenith angles of 0-60 degrees.

The HYPSTAR®-XR instruments deployed at each land HYPERNETS site consist of a VNIR and a SWIR sensor and autonomously collect data between 380-1700 nm at various viewing geometries and send it to a central server for quality control and processing. The VNIR sensor spans 1330 channels between 380 and 1000 nm with a FWHM of 3 nm and the SWIR sensor has 220 channels between 1000 and 1700 nm with a FWHM of 10 nm. The hypernets_processor (Goyens et al. 2021; De Vis et al. in prep.) automatically processes all this data into various products, including the L2A surface reflectance product provided here. All of the products have associated uncertainties (divided into random and systematic uncertainties, including error-correlation information) which were propagated using the CoMet toolkit (www.comet-toolkit.org). 

To obtain this dataset, we start from the full BASP data record and omit all the data that do not pass all of the quality checks performed as part of the hypernets_processor. In addition, an additional screening procedure was developed to remove outliers and only supply the best quality data suitable for satellite validation. To remove the outliers, a sigma-clipping method is used. First reflectances are extracted in separate 2 hour windows throughout the day (to account for BRDF differences due to different solar position) for 4 different wavelengths (500, 900, 1100 and 1600 nm). Outliers in these reflectances are then identified by iteratively calculating the mean reflectance trend with time (by binning the data per maximum 30 data points), calculating the standard deviation from this trend, and masking any data that is more than 3 standard deviations away from the trend. This process is repeated on the unmasked data until the standard deviation does not vary by more than 5% between two iterations. The masks for the 4 different wavelengths are then combined (keeping only measurements for which none of the 4 wavelengths is an outlier). The reflectances and associated uncertainties for any masked series (i.e. a geometry that is masked either by the sigma-clipping procedure or from the masks of the hypernets_processor) are replaced by NaNs. Any sequence that has more than half of its series masked is removed entirely. For BASP specifically, viewing zenith angles above 30 degrees have been removed, as well as any west-facing angles azimuth angles of 263,273 or 293 degrees) for viewing zenith angles of 5 degrees and 10 degrees. 

Note: In the accompanying .csv description file the measurement times are listed in (BST/ UTC+1) after UK time.

Files

BASP_sequences.csv

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Additional details

Funding

HYPERNETS – A new hyperspectral radiometer integrated in automated networks of water and land bidirectional reflectance measurements for satellite validation 775983
European Commission